Abstract

We report the frequency stabilization of a CW single-frequency, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to the saturation absorption center of the C1612O2[10°1,02°1]II00°0 P(14) line at 2.77 μm. The CO2 molecules were excited by the OPO idler wave, and the absorption signal was monitored through the fluorescence at 4.3 μm using a gold-coated longitudinal cell. The idler frequency was stabilized onto the line center by wavelength modulation method. The linewidth of the saturation dip was estimated to be 4.7 MHz, and the achieved frequency stability was 3.9 kHz (3.6×1011).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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2011

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, Opt. Express 17, 7440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, Appl. Phys. B 86, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

2002

Y. He, P. Wang, R. T. White, and J. Brian Orr, Opt. Photon. News 13, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T.-L. Huang, W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-R. Lin, J.-T. Shy, and H.-P. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Nakazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, Appl. Phys. B 86, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anzel, P.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asselin, P.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

Bast, R.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, Ch. J.

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

Cancio, P.

Chardonnet, C.

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.-Y.

T.-L. Huang, W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-R. Lin, J.-T. Shy, and H.-P. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-C.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chou, J.-T. Shy, and T.-H. Yen, Opt. Lett. 17, 967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Liao, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA10.

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA09.

Chui, H.-C.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, Appl. Phys. B 86, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crassous, J.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristescu, S. M.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Darquié, B.

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

DeSalvo, B. J.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dickenson, G. D.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

Evenson, K. M.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

Goddon, D.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Groh, A.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gross, P.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guy, L.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, P. Wang, R. T. White, and J. Brian Orr, Opt. Photon. News 13, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.-L.

T.-L. Huang, W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-R. Lin, J.-T. Shy, and H.-P. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huet, T. R.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, T. I.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Killian, T. C.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemarchand, C.

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

K.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Liao, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA10.

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA09.

Lien, Y.-H.

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA09.

K.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Liao, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA10.

Lin, Y.-R.

T.-L. Huang, W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-R. Lin, J.-T. Shy, and H.-P. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, I. D.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-P.

T.-L. Huang, W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-R. Lin, J.-T. Shy, and H.-P. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

Mickelson, P. G.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, S. B.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ngai, A. K. Y.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, Appl. Phys. B 86, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orr, J. Brian

Y. He, P. Wang, R. T. White, and J. Brian Orr, Opt. Photon. News 13, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.-L.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, Appl. Phys. B 86, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S. T.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salumbides, E. J.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saue, T.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schwerdtfeger, P.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shelkovnikov, A.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shu, R.-H.

J.-L. Peng, H. Ahn, R.-H. Shu, H.-C. Chui, and J. W. Nicholson, Appl. Phys. B 86, 49 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J.-T.

T.-L. Huang, W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-R. Lin, J.-T. Shy, and H.-P. Liu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chou, J.-T. Shy, and T.-H. Yen, Opt. Lett. 17, 967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Liao, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA10.

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA09.

Soulard, P.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoeffler, C.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, Chirality 22, 870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

Tittel, F. K.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Gross, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, Appl. Phys. B 89, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Traverso, A. J.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Triki, M.

C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, Ch. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Y. He, P. Wang, R. T. White, and J. Brian Orr, Opt. Photon. News 13, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weibring, P.

White, R. T.

Y. He, P. Wang, R. T. White, and J. Brian Orr, Opt. Photon. News 13, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.-Y.

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA09.

K.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Liao, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and C.-C. Chou, in 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, 2008), paper FA10.

Yan, M.

P. G. Mickelson, Y. N. Martinez de Escobar, P. Anzel, B. J. DeSalvo, S. B. Nagel, A. J. Traverso, M. Yan, and T. C. Killian, J. Phys. B 42, 235001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T.-H.

Zimmermann, W.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211 (1994).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of our experiment: Iso, optical isolator; λ/2, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; E, etalon; OC, output coupler; F–B, scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer; F1, collimating lens; and B, Brewster window.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence signal and noise versus modulation frequency; the highest SNR was achieved at a modulation frequency of 300 Hz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Doppler-broadened absorption line profile with the Doppler-free saturation dip of the carbon dioxide 10°100°0 P(14) line near 2.77 μm. Frequency jittering of the α-DFB laser caused the irregular line shape.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

First derivative signal of the saturation dip; the slope at the line center was 1.73mV/MHz. Inset, frequency fluctuation of the idler wave when it was locked to the center of the saturation dip.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of first derivative signal intensity on the modulation depth. The fitted linewidth is 4.75(0.13)MHz.

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