Abstract

We demonstrate a dual-beam, balanced detector approach, compatible with commercial Fourier transform infrared spectrometers that provide a single modulated output. Implemented with a near-IR mode-locked fiber laser source and an external broadband polarizing beamsplitter, the dual-beam method provides relative intensity noise reduction and real-time baseline drift cancellation. Noise levels within a factor of three above the shot noise limit (using 0.6 mW of optical power) are demonstrated for the weak second overtone of CO. The method should be particularly well suited for applications like broadband spectroscopy using a large fraction of the supercontinuum generated in a highly nonlinear fiber, and attenuated reflection spectroscopy, for which extreme pathlength enhancement is challenging.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photon. 3, 99 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications (Springer, 2004).
  7. R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).
  8. F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. A. Michaels, T. Masiello, and P. M. Chu, Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 538 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Tamura, “Additive pulse mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 1994).
  13. S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 2001).
  14. J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picque, F. Druon, and P. Georges, Opt. Lett. 32, 1677 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photon. 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Michaels, T. Masiello, and P. M. Chu, Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 538 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 2001).

Adler, F.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Ban, T.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 2001).

Briles, T. C.

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. M.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cossel, K. C.

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications (Springer, 2004).

Davis, S. P.

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 2001).

Denzer, W.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Didriche, K.

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Druon, F.

Dudley, J. M.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

Guelachvili, G.

Hancock, G.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Herman, M.

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kassi, S.

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langley, C. E.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lauzin, C.

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mandon, J.

Masiello, T.

Maslowski, P.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, C. A.

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peverall, R.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Picque, N.

Ritchie, G. A. D.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rizopoulos, A.

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, “Additive pulse mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 1994).

Taylor, D.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vaernewijck, X. d. G. d. E.

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, P. Maslowski, A. Foltynowicz, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 18, 21861 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications (Springer, 2004).

Analyst (1)

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, M. Islam, C. E. Langley, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and D. Taylor, Analyst 136, 801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Faraday Discuss. (1)

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, T. Ban, F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, T. C. Briles, and J. Ye, Faraday Discuss. 150, 23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

X. d. G. d. E. Vaernewijck, K. Didriche, C. Lauzin, A. Rizopoulos, M. Herman, and S. Kassi, Mol. Phys. 109, 2173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Photon. 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Maslowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

K. Tamura, “Additive pulse mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 1994).

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 2001).

J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications (Springer, 2004).

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout for dual-beam FTIR spectroscopy with a mode-locked fiber laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Baseline stability and small signal comparison of single beam lamp (red) with laser source (blue) in single and dual-beam configurations. (a) Single beam, single detector reproducibility. (b) Dual-beam, signal, and reference interferograms processed using Eq. 1. (c) Dual-beam, CMR, and Ref interferograms processed using Eqs. (1) and (2). (d) CO second overtone spectrum using lamp. (e) CO spectrum using dual-beam CMR and Ref interferograms for RIN reduction and baseline correction. All spectra were acquired under the same experimental conditions (single scan, 0.2cm1 resolution, 40 kHz mirror speed referenced to the HeNe laser).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A=log10(Isig,0/Iref,0)log10(Isig/Iref),
Isig*=FT(IFGrefIFGCMR).

Metrics