Abstract

Squeezed states can be employed for entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution, where the secure key rate is proportional to the bandwidth of the squeezing. We produced a nonclassical cw laser field at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm, which showed squeezing over a bandwidth of more than 2 GHz. The experimental setup used parametric downconversion via a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal. We did not use any resonant enhancement for the fundamental wavelength, which should in principle allow a production of squeezed light over the full phase-matching bandwidth of several nanometers. We measured the squeezing to be up to 0.3 dB below the vacuum noise from 50 MHz to 2 GHz limited by the measuring bandwidth of the homodyne detector. The squeezing strength was possibly limited by thermal lensing inside the nonlinear crystal.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. Mehmet, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 35, 1665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. García-Patrón and N. J. Cerf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 130501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Dong, J. Heersink, J. F. Corney, P. D. Drummond, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. DiGuglielmo, B. Hage, A. Franzen, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rodò, O. Romero-Isart, K. Eckert, and A. Sanpera, Open Systs. Inf. Dyn. 14, 69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1992

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, and M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. Yurke, Phys. Rev. A 29, 408 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. Yuen and J. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 657 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U. L.

Ast, S.

Bauchrowitz, J.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berta, M.

F. Furrer, T. Franz, M. Berta, V. B. Scholz, M. Tomamichel, and R. F. Werner, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2179 .

Bloch, M.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burk, M.

Cerf, N. J.

R. García-Patrón and N. J. Cerf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 130501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corney, J. F.

Danzmann, K.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Debuisschert, T.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DiGuglielmo, J.

J. DiGuglielmo, B. Hage, A. Franzen, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, R.

Drummond, P. D.

Eberle, T.

Eckert, K.

C. Rodò, O. Romero-Isart, K. Eckert, and A. Sanpera, Open Systs. Inf. Dyn. 14, 69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiurášek, J.

J. DiGuglielmo, B. Hage, A. Franzen, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fossier, S.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, T.

F. Furrer, T. Franz, M. Berta, V. B. Scholz, M. Tomamichel, and R. F. Werner, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2179 .

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. DiGuglielmo, B. Hage, A. Franzen, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furrer, F.

F. Furrer, T. Franz, M. Berta, V. B. Scholz, M. Tomamichel, and R. F. Werner, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2179 .

García-Patrón, R.

R. García-Patrón and N. J. Cerf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 130501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossler, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, and M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. DiGuglielmo, B. Hage, A. Franzen, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Händchen, V.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heersink, J.

Hollberg, L. W.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, E.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

LaPorta, A.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, and M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lastzka, N.

S. Ast, R. M. Nia, A. Schönbeck, N. Lastzka, J. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 36, 3467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

Lodewyck, J.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, S. W.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mehmet, M.

S. Ast, R. M. Nia, A. Schönbeck, N. Lastzka, J. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 36, 3467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 35, 1665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J. C.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Ebhardt, H.

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nia, R. M.

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K. C.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Potasek, M. J.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, and M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 61, 010303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodò, C.

C. Rodò, O. Romero-Isart, K. Eckert, and A. Sanpera, Open Systs. Inf. Dyn. 14, 69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Isart, O.

C. Rodò, O. Romero-Isart, K. Eckert, and A. Sanpera, Open Systs. Inf. Dyn. 14, 69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanpera, A.

C. Rodò, O. Romero-Isart, K. Eckert, and A. Sanpera, Open Systs. Inf. Dyn. 14, 69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

S. Ast, R. M. Nia, A. Schönbeck, N. Lastzka, J. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 36, 3467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 35, 1665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. DiGuglielmo, B. Hage, A. Franzen, J. Fiurášek, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 76, 012323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and T. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 043601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, V. B.

F. Furrer, T. Franz, M. Berta, V. B. Scholz, M. Tomamichel, and R. F. Werner, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2179 .

Schönbeck, A.

Shapiro, J.

H. Yuen and J. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 657 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sizmann, A.

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, and M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Steinlechner, J.

Steinlechner, S.

Strössner, U.

Su, X.

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomamichel, M.

F. Furrer, T. Franz, M. Berta, V. B. Scholz, M. Tomamichel, and R. F. Werner, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2179 .

Tualle-Brouri, R.

J. Lodewyck, M. Bloch, R. García-Patrón, S. Fossier, E. Karpov, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, N. J. Cerf, R. Tualle-Brouri, S. W. McLaughlin, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahlbruch, H.

M. Mehmet, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 35, 1665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Gossler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valley, J. F.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Werner, R. F.

F. Furrer, T. Franz, M. Berta, V. B. Scholz, M. Tomamichel, and R. F. Werner, http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2179 .

Wu, H.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-A.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

X. Su, W. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Europhys. Lett. 87, 20005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, H.

H. Yuen and J. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 657 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yurke, B.

R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, and M. J. Potasek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Yurke, Phys. Rev. A 29, 408 (1984).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup: Mode Cleaner, three-mirror spatial filter cavity; SHG, second harmonic generation cavity with nonlinear PPKTP crystal; OPA, squeezing resonator with nonlinear PPKTP crystal and high squeezing bandwidth; DBS, dichroic beam splitter to separate 775 and 1550 nm light; PDSHG/OPA,lock, photodetector measuring error signals for cavity length stabilization with 138 MHz demodulation frequency; EOM, electro-optic modulator producing sidebands of 138 MHz for the cavity length stabilization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

BHD characterization from 50 MHz to 2 GHz. Top, homodyne detector shot noise at 0.75 mW LO power. Bottom, homodyne detector dark noise. The dark noise distance ranges from about 9 dB at 50 MHz, 8 dB at 500 MHz, and slowly degrades to about 2 dB at 2 GHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Homodyne detector linearity. Measured shot-noise levels at 0.75 mW (top) and 0.375 mW (bottom) LO powers, both dark noise corrected and normalized to the data of the latter. At these LO power levels, the homodyne detector is linear since halving the LO power results in a 3 dB reduction of the shot noise. A small saturation effect is revealed toward higher frequencies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Quantum noise spectra normalized to shot noise. The traces shown include a dark noise correction, which allows a comparison with numerical simulations of our system (dashed lines) and which marginally improves the squeezing data only above 1 GHz. A nonclassical noise suppression (squeezing) of up to 0.3 dB and 0.5 dB of antisqueezing are observed from 0.05–2 GHz.

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