Abstract

We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds measured by our instrument at an 80 m distance to those simultaneously obtained from an industry-standard sonic anemometer (SA). An excellent degree of correlation (R2=0.994 and slope=0.996) is achieved from a linear regression analysis of the CDL versus SA wind speed data. The lidar system is capable of providing high data availability, ranging from 85% to 100% even under varying outdoor (temperature and humidity) conditions during the test period. We also show the use of our SL-CDL for monitoring the dependence of aerosol backscatter on relative humidity. This work points to the feasibility of a more general class of low-cost, portable remote sensors based on all-SL emitters for applications that require demanding laser stability and coherence.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Rahm, Opt. Lett. 26, 319 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

Barr, K. S.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, R.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.-P.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choukulkar, A.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, A. S.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, M.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, M. S.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danielian, R.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, A.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enevoldsen, K.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fine, J.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, J. W.

Gottschall, J.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. P.

Hansen, R. S.

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pedersen and R. S. Hansen, “Coherent lidar system based on a semiconductor laser and amplifier,” U. S. patent application US 2010/0277714 A1 (November4, 2010).

Harris, M.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, Appl. Opt. 39, 3716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

Im, J-.S.

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, H. E.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, C. J.

Kavaya, M. J.

Köpp, F.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, R.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

Lindelöw, P.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindelöw-Marsden, P.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Magee, J. R.

Mann, J.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, T.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milton Huffaker, R.

Oliver, A.

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, F. Å. A.

Parmentier, R.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, C.

P. J. Rodrigo and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 18, 5320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, Opt. Express 16, 18288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Pedersen and R. S. Hansen, “Coherent lidar system based on a semiconductor laser and amplifier,” U. S. patent application US 2010/0277714 A1 (November4, 2010).

Rahm, S.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Saxena, V. K.

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sjöholm, M.

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenny, B. N.

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, R.

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aerospace Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Harris, R. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerospace Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. (1)

M. Sjöholm, T. Mikkelsen, J. Mann, K. Enevoldsen, and M. Courtney, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 1, 012051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J-.S. Im, V. K. Saxena, and B. N. Wenny, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meteor. Z. (1)

J. Mann, J.-P. Cariou, M. S. Courtney, R. Parmentier, T. Mikkelsen, R. Wagner, P. Lindelöw, M. Sjöholm, and K. Enevoldsen, Meteor. Z. 18, 135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Wind Energy (3)

R. Krishnamurthy, A. Choukulkar, R. Calhoun, J. Fine, A. Oliver, and K. S. Barr, Wind Energy doi:10.1002/we.539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, M. Courtney, J. Gottschall, and P. Lindelöw-Marsden, Wind Energy 14, 993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, M. Harris, A. S. Coffey, T. Mikkelsen, H. E. Jørgensen, J. Mann, and R. Danielian, Wind Energy 9, 87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Lindelöw-Marsden, www.upwind.eu/media/585/D6.1.3.pdf .

T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, eds., Laser Remote Sensing(CRC Press, 2005).

C. Pedersen and R. S. Hansen, “Coherent lidar system based on a semiconductor laser and amplifier,” U. S. patent application US 2010/0277714 A1 (November4, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a deployable SL-based homodyne cw lidar consisting of transceiver (15cm×15cm×45cm) and control (50cm×30cm×75cm) modules linked by two fiber optic cables. The “all-optical” transceiver is composed of collimating lens L1, thin-film polarizer (TFP), λ/4 wave plate (QWP), reference wedge (RW) for generating a local oscillator beam, telescope lenses L3 and L4, and coupling lens L2. All sensitive electronics are part of the control module. The inset shows a photo of the field test to compare the performance of our lidar wind sensor against a three-dimensional sonic anemometer (F2901 Metek, Germany).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

36 h radial wind speed data. a. 10 min averages and the difference (right axis). b. Linear regression of the data. c. Polar plot of the lidar/sonic ratio (black points) as a function of horizontal wind direction. The red arc denotes the lidar/sonic ratio equal to 1. The gray ellipse depicts the lidar beam extent to be approximately twice the Rayleigh length (quadratically dependent on range) and its azimuthal orientation. Green (small) and blue (large) dots mark the positions of the SA and the mast relative to the probe beam, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the signal (normalized to shot noise) on RH during the 36 h field test. From RH of 53% to 91%, the signal strength, relative to shot noise, increased by a factor of 4.

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