Abstract

We demonstrate a new class of passively temperature stabilized resonant silicon electro-optic modulators. The modulators consist of a ring resonator coupled to a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with tailored thermal properties. We demonstrate 2 GHz continuous modulation over a temperature range of 35 °C and describe the scalability and design rules for such a device.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012

2011

Q. Long, H. Yi, X. Wang, and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 8308, 83081L (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Qiu, J. Shu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xu, Opt. Express 19, 5143 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1967

Y. P. Varshni, Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

P. Alipour, E. S. Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThQ6.

Alipour, P.

P. Alipour, E. S. Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThQ6.

Apsel, A. B.

Asghari, M.

Atabaki, A. H.

P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThQ6.

Baets, R.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Brown, M.

F. J. Mesa-Martinez, M. Brown, J. Nayfach-Battilana, and J. Renau, in IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2008), pp. 1–5.

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Dokania, R. K.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Eftekhar, A. A.

P. Alipour, E. S. Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, Opt. Lett. 35, 3462 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThQ6.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Guha, B.

Han, M.

Han, X.

Hosseini, E. S.

Hu, J.

Izuhara, T.

Jian, X.

Kee, J. S.

Kimerling, L.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kyotoku, B.

Li, G.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liow, T.

Lipson, M.

Lo, G.

Long, Q.

Q. Long, H. Yi, X. Wang, and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 8308, 83081L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luck, D. L.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Manipatruni, S.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mesa-Martinez, F. J.

F. J. Mesa-Martinez, M. Brown, J. Nayfach-Battilana, and J. Renau, in IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2008), pp. 1–5.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Momeni, B.

Morthier, G.

Motooka, T.

Nayfach-Battilana, J.

F. J. Mesa-Martinez, M. Brown, J. Nayfach-Battilana, and J. Renau, in IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2008), pp. 1–5.

Nielson, G. N.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Park, M. K.

Poitras, C. B.

Qiu, C.

Raghunathan, V.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renau, J.

F. J. Mesa-Martinez, M. Brown, J. Nayfach-Battilana, and J. Renau, in IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2008), pp. 1–5.

Schmidt, B.

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shu, J.

Song, J.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Tu, X.

Uenuma, M.

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, X.

Q. Long, H. Yi, X. Wang, and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 8308, 83081L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Xu, Q.

Ye, W. N.

Yi, H.

Q. Long, H. Yi, X. Wang, and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 8308, 83081L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yiying, J. Q.

Young, R. W.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

Yu, M.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, M.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, Z.

Q. Long, H. Yi, X. Wang, and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 8308, 83081L (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, Nat. Photon. 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Physica

Y. P. Varshni, Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Q. Long, H. Yi, X. Wang, and Z. Zhou, Proc. SPIE 8308, 83081L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. J. Mesa-Martinez, M. Brown, J. Nayfach-Battilana, and J. Renau, in IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2008), pp. 1–5.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.

P. Alipour, A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThQ6.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical microscope image of the device, which consists of an 80 μm radius ring resonator coupled to an MZI. The ring has a p-i-n diode integrated around it. Waveguide cross sections at various parts of the device are shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(e) DC measurement of optical power transition as diode voltage is changed for different temperatures. (f) Change in predicted optical ER with temperature over two temperature periods.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated eye diagrams showing the periodic change in eye diagram shape with temperature over one temperature period. (b) 2 Gbps square wave modulation eye diagrams for different temperatures. Measurements span over two temperature periods. Corresponding predicted eye is shown in the top row.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)–(c) Optical transmission change as a function of index perturbation of an overcompensated 10 μm radius resonator at different temperatures. ER for a modulation of strength Δn=2.2×103 is shown. Negative sign indicates resonance blueshift with carrier injection. (d) Change in optical ER with temperature.

Equations (1)

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MZI(T)=[neff+neffTT]ΔLmzi+[Δneff+ΔneffTT]Lmzi=[neffTT]2πR,

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