Abstract

We developed a highly sensitive infrared photodetection system using an InGaAs p-i-n photodiode. The temperature and data sampling rate dependences of the readout noise were measured to determine the optimum temperature for low-noise detection. The optimum temperature for sampling rates below 100 Hz was 100 K, and the readout noise at 1 Hz was 2.5 e. The readout noise at 1 MHz and 140 K was 49.4 e. The light detection limit of the system was 8.2×1019W at a wavelength of 1.3 μm. The spectral noise densities of a readout circuit were measured in order to determine the origin of noise.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. 14, 163 (1988).
  10. M. Akiba and M. Fujiwara, Opt. Lett. 28, 1010 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. F. M. Klaassen and J. R. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 852 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

1977 (1)

A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. F. Barbe, Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

F. M. Klaassen and J. R. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 852 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

M. Akiba and M. Fujiwara, Opt. Lett. 28, 1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balk, L. J.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Barbe, D. F.

D. F. Barbe, Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Michael, R.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, H.

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

Chan, D. S. H.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Chua, C. M.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Cova, S.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Guardigli, M.

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Itzler, M. A.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jonscher, A. K.

A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kakinuma, K.

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaminaka, S.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, F. M.

F. M. Klaassen and J. R. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 852 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Koh, L. S.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Kohda, E.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, M.

T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Len, W. B.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Lim, B. S.

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Makiuchi, M.

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michelini, E.

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mirasoli, M.

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, J.

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mora, A. D.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narusawa, F.

T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nowick, A. S.

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ocio, M.

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

Pasini, P.

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phang, C. H.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Robinson, J. R.

F. M. Klaassen and J. R. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 852 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Roda, A.

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, T.

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slomkowski, K.

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. L.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Tanaka, M.

T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tosi, A.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaysleyb, A. V.

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, H.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yim, K.H.

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

Zappa, F.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. (1)

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, R. Ben-Michael, and K. Slomkowski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 895 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Makiuchi, J. Miyazaki, T. Shiraishi, K. Kakinuma, and H. Inaba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

F. M. Klaassen and J. R. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 852 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Maruyama, F. Narusawa, M. Kudo, and M. Tanaka, Opt. Eng. 41, 395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. F. Barbe, Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, S. Cova, M. A. Itzler, and X. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

A. Roda, P. Pasini, M. Mirasoli, E. Michelini, and M. Guardigli, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 295 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, S. L. Tan, W. B. Len, K.H. Yim, L. S. Koh, C. M. Chua, and L. J. Balk, in Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2005), pp. 275–281.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of apparatus used to measure the noise characteristics of the infrared detection system. All the devices in the cryostat were mounted on an alumina platform, which was set on the work surface of a liquid nitrogen cryostat with a thermal insulator between the platform and the work surface. The degree of thermal isolation was varied with the temperature at which each measurement was carried out. The temperature was controlled using a heater resistor on the platform.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of the readout noise on the temperature and the sampling rate. The readout noise was obtained using a correlated double sampling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Noise spectral densities of the readout circuit with and without the InGaAs p-i-n PD at 80 K and 90 K, and at bias voltages of 0 V and 14 V.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Noise spectral densities of the readout circuit with and without the InGaAs p-i-n PD at 120 K and 140 K, and at bias voltages of 0 V and 14 V. Inset: The dark current versus temperature.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Readout Noise and Light Detection Limit

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