Abstract

Nonuniform lateral scanning of the probe beam in optical coherence tomography produces imaging artifacts and leads to a morphologically inaccurate representation of the sample. Here, we demonstrate a solution to this problem, which is based on the Doppler shift carried by the complex-valued depth-resolved scattering amplitude. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of Doppler flow velocity measurements in underlying flow channels while laterally scanning the imaging probe over large surfaces with arbitrary and varying velocity. Finally, we performed centimeters-long hand-held B-mode imaging of skin in vivo.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ahmad, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, U. Sharma, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Express 17, 8125 (2009).
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2011

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Kalkman, A. V. Bykov, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Express 18, 3883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2006

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

J. M. Rubin, T. A. Tuthill, and J. B. Fowlkes, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

Ahmad, A.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bremmer, R. H.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bykov, A. V.

Chaney, E. J.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

de Bruin, D. M.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Kinkelder, R.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dhalla, A.

Ellerbee, A. K.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

J. Kalkman, A. V. Bykov, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Express 18, 3883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J. B.

J. M. Rubin, T. A. Tuthill, and J. B. Fowlkes, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hendargo, H. C.

Izatt, J. A.

H. C. Hendargo, R. P. McNabb, A. Dhalla, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

Kodach, V. M.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liew, Y. M.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, E. J.

McLaughlin, R. A.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McNabb, R. P.

Ren, J.

Rubin, J. M.

J. M. Rubin, T. A. Tuthill, and J. B. Fowlkes, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, U.

Shepherd, N.

Tearney, G. J.

Tuthill, T. A.

J. M. Rubin, T. A. Tuthill, and J. B. Fowlkes, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

J. Kalkman, A. V. Bykov, D. J. Faber, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Express 18, 3883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, J.

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wood, F. M.

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Biomed. Opt. Express

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. de Bruin, R. H. Bremmer, V. M. Kodach, R. de Kinkelder, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 025001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Liew, R. A. McLaughlin, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

J. M. Rubin, T. A. Tuthill, and J. B. Fowlkes, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

Zaber Technologies, Zaber T-series positioning products technical notes (2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Doppler-based lateral motion tracking of a tissue phantom. (a) Quasi-uniform motion and control image. (b) Nonuniform motion plotted in a uniform time axis showing lateral motion artifacts. (c) Nonuniform motion resampled into a uniform displacement axis, lateral motion artifacts are corrected. (d) Measured stage velocities of (a) and (b). Note that the high frequency oscillations are typical for lead screw translation stages.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) OCT image of the tissue phantom with a channel with flowing Intralipid solution. (b) Velocity while translating the stage, measured through the flow channel (dark gray line/arrow) and measured at a shallower depth (black line/arrow). The flow profile is calculated by subtracting both signals (light gray line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Hand-held B-mode OCT image of the skin of the ventral forearm. (a) B-scan plotted in a uniform time axis. (b) B-scan resampled and plotted in a uniform displacement axis correcting for the lateral scanning artifacts caused by the nonuniform motion of the OCT probe.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v(z,t,t+T)=λc4πncosθarg[aOCT(z,t)aOCT*(z,t+T)]T,
Δx(t+T)=λc22πncosθNΔϕ,

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