Abstract

Laser frequency fluctuations typically limit the performance of high-resolution interferometric fiber strain sensors. Using time delay interferometry, we demonstrate a frequency noise immune fiber sensing system, where strain signals were extracted well below the noise floor normally imposed by the frequency fluctuations of the laser. Initial measurements show a reduction in the noise floor by a factor of 30, with strain sensitivities of a nanostrain/Hz at 100 mHz and reaching 100ps/Hz at 1 Hz. Further characterization of the system indicates the potential for at least 4.5 orders of magnitude frequency fluctuation rejection.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. H. Chow, D. E. McClelland, and M. B. Gray, Opt. Lett. 30, 1923 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. White, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 349 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M Tinto and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D 59, 102003 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. Mitryk, V. Wand, and G. Mueller, Class. Quantum. Grav. 27, 084012 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. A. Shaddock, Opt. Lett. 32, 3355 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. M. R. Wuchenich, T. T.-Y. Lam, J. H. Chow, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, Opt. Lett. 36, 672 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Valimaki and T. I. Laakso, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 6 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 3870–3873.
  13. D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

S. J. Mitryk, V. Wand, and G. Mueller, Class. Quantum. Grav. 27, 084012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

2004

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M Tinto and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D 59, 102003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1965

A. White, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 349 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. W.

D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M Tinto and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D 59, 102003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chow, J. H.

Day, T.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Vine, G.

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Estabrook, F. B.

D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Gustafson, E. K.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klipstein, W. M.

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Laakso, T. I.

V. Valimaki and T. I. Laakso, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 6 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 3870–3873.

Lam, T. T.-Y.

Ma, L.-S.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

McKenzie, K.

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitryk, S. J.

S. J. Mitryk, V. Wand, and G. Mueller, Class. Quantum. Grav. 27, 084012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

S. J. Mitryk, V. Wand, and G. Mueller, Class. Quantum. Grav. 27, 084012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

D. M. R. Wuchenich, T. T.-Y. Lam, J. H. Chow, D. E. McClelland, and D. A. Shaddock, Opt. Lett. 36, 672 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, Opt. Lett. 32, 3355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spero, R. E.

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tinto, M

M Tinto and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D 59, 102003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tinto, M.

D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valimaki, V.

V. Valimaki and T. I. Laakso, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 6 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 3870–3873.

Vallisneri, M.

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wand, V.

S. J. Mitryk, V. Wand, and G. Mueller, Class. Quantum. Grav. 27, 084012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ware, B.

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, A.

A. White, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 349 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wuchenich, D. M. R.

Ye, J.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum. Grav.

S. J. Mitryk, V. Wand, and G. Mueller, Class. Quantum. Grav. 27, 084012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. White, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 349 (1965).
[CrossRef]

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. D

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, R. E. Spero, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 081101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M Tinto and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D 59, 102003 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D.

D. A. Shaddock, M. Tinto, F. B. Estabrook, and J. W. Armstrong, Phys. Rev. D. 68, 061303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. de Vine, B. Ware, K. McKenzie, R. E. Spero, W. M. Klipstein, and D. A Shaddock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 211103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Valimaki and T. I. Laakso, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 6 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 3870–3873.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. DI is used to isolate reflections from each of the Michelson arms. Once the signals are measured, they are combined in postprocessing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sensitivity of the (a) uncalibrated TDI response and (b) corrected TDI response.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time domain traces of the strain signals measured by a (a) simple Michelson and (b) TDI Michelson. A section of the trace is magnified to emphasize the improvement obtained in (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power spectral densities of the strain resolution of (a) a simple Michelson response (without TDI) and (b) the resolution of the TDI Michelson interferometer (with TDI).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s1(t)=ϕlas(tτ1)ϕlas(t)+ϕs1(t),
s2(t)=ϕlas(tτ2)ϕlas(t)+ϕs2(t),
Λ=[s1(t)s2(t)][s1(tτ2)s2(tτ1)].
Λ=ϕs1(t)ϕs1(tτ2)ϕs2(t)+ϕs2(tτ1).
Λ^=Φs1(ω)(1eiωτ2)Φs2(ω)(1eiωτ1).
Hcal(z)=Tsτ211z1,

Metrics