Abstract

The influence of femtosecond laser-induced plasma (FLIP) on the stability of a premixed CH4/O2/N2 flame is investigated at atmospheric pressure. The laser energy, laser repetition rate, the equivalence ratios, and the volume percentage of oxygen in O2/N2 blends are varied. Our findings indicate that the flame blow-off velocity is a function of these parameters. It has been experimentally found that the flame blow-off velocity increases by a factor of two with FLIP than without FLIP. A high-repetition-rate and a great energy laser-induced plasma flameholding, as a non-intrusive optical flameholding, may be a feasible alternative for any combustor.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. I. Mintoussov, S. V. Pancheshnyi, and A. Y. Starikovskii, Proceeding of 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (2004), paper  2004-1013.
  2. W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, AIAA J. 7, 312 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. London 321, 41 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 351 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. E. Fendell, E. Y. Kung, and M. W. Sheffield, J. Propul. Power 8, 464 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. D. Medoff and A. Mellroy, Proceeding of 32nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (1996), paper 96-3133.
  11. T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, and D. H. McNeill, Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 217 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Dewhurst, J. Phys. D 11, L191 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. E. Williams, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 352 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, and D. H. McNeill, Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. E. Fendell, E. Y. Kung, and M. W. Sheffield, J. Propul. Power 8, 464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

W. E. Williams, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. Dewhurst, J. Phys. D 11, L191 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. London 321, 41 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, AIAA J. 7, 312 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Asmussen, J.

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cappelli, M. A.

W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dewhurst, R.

R. Dewhurst, J. Phys. D 11, L191 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Do, H.

W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fendell, F. E.

F. E. Fendell, E. Y. Kung, and M. W. Sheffield, J. Propul. Power 8, 464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Galley, D.

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geringer, B.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graf, J.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grotjohn, T. A.

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hemawan, K. W.

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jetzinger, M.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kapus, P.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klawatsch, D.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knystautas, R.

J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, AIAA J. 7, 312 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kung, E. Y.

F. E. Fendell, E. Y. Kung, and M. W. Sheffield, J. Propul. Power 8, 464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lacas, F.

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacoste, D. A.

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laux, C. O.

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, AIAA J. 7, 312 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, H. P.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liedl, G.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, D. H.

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, and D. H. McNeill, Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Medoff, L. D.

L. D. Medoff and A. Mellroy, Proceeding of 32nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (1996), paper 96-3133.

Mellroy, A.

L. D. Medoff and A. Mellroy, Proceeding of 32nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (1996), paper 96-3133.

Mintoussov, E. I.

E. I. Mintoussov, S. V. Pancheshnyi, and A. Y. Starikovskii, Proceeding of 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (2004), paper  2004-1013.

Mungal, M. G.

W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pancheshnyi, S. V.

E. I. Mintoussov, S. V. Pancheshnyi, and A. Y. Starikovskii, Proceeding of 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (2004), paper  2004-1013.

Phuoc, T. X.

T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, and D. H. McNeill, Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, G.

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piock, W. F.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romel, C. L.

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuöcker, D.

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheffield, M. W.

F. E. Fendell, E. Y. Kung, and M. W. Sheffield, J. Propul. Power 8, 464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

W. E. Williams, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Starikovskii, A. Y.

E. I. Mintoussov, S. V. Pancheshnyi, and A. Y. Starikovskii, Proceeding of 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (2004), paper  2004-1013.

Van Stryland, E. W.

W. E. Williams, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Veynante, D.

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, F. J.

F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. London 321, 41 (1971).
[CrossRef]

White, C. M.

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, and D. H. McNeill, Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wichman, I. S.

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, W. E.

W. E. Williams, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. R.

F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. London 321, 41 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, S.

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, AIAA J. 7, 312 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. W. Hemawan, C. L. Romel, S. Zuo, I. S. Wichman, T. A. Grotjohn, and J. Asmussen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Williams, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (2)

W. Kim, H. Do, M. G. Mungal, and M. A. Cappelli, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Pilla, D. Galley, D. A. Lacoste, F. Lacas, D. Veynante, and C. O. Laux, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Dewhurst, J. Phys. D 11, L191 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Propul. Power (1)

F. E. Fendell, E. Y. Kung, and M. W. Sheffield, J. Propul. Power 8, 464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, and D. H. McNeill, Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. London 321, 41 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Liedl, D. Schuöcker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, and P. Kapus, Proc. SPIE 6346, 63461K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. I. Mintoussov, S. V. Pancheshnyi, and A. Y. Starikovskii, Proceeding of 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (2004), paper  2004-1013.

L. D. Medoff and A. Mellroy, Proceeding of 32nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (1996), paper 96-3133.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of a pulsed laser-induced plasma flameholding in a combustible mixture flowing with a uniform and parallel velocity Um. The flame speed of the burning mixture is Uf, where Uf<Um [9,10].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experiment set-up (MFM = mass flow meter).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of the flame: (a) a stable Bunsen flame without FLIP, (b) an unstable Bunsen flame without FLIP, (c) a stable V-shaped flame with FLIP, and (d) an intermittent flame with FLIP.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Blow-off velocity of premixed CH4/O2/N2 flame (XO=21%) with and without FLIP at p=1atm and Tu300K.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Blow-off velocity of premixed CH4/O2/N2 flame (XO=22.2%, Φ=0.8) with FLIP at p=1atm and Tu300K.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

UB=Uf(2fΔt+1).
Φ=CH4/O2(CH4/O2)st,
XO=VOVO+VN×100,

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