Abstract

We demonstrate that a broadband enhancement of spontaneous emission can be achieved within a photonic-plasmonic structure. The structure can strongly modify the spontaneous emission by exciting plasmonic modes. Because of the excited plasmonic modes, an enhancement up to 30 times is observed, leading to a 4 times broader emission spectrum. The reflectance measurement and the finite-difference time-domain simulation are carried out to support these results.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 1–2, 693 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  8. M. Kuttge, F. Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gwon, E. Lee, D.-W. Kim, K.-J. Yee, M. J. Lee, and Y. S. Kim, Opt. Express 19, 5895 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).
  14. T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, Adv. Mater. 19, 276 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, O. Hansen, and N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 20, 5237 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 14, 1957 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Ruppin, Phys. Lett. A 299, 309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. F. Koenderink, Opt. Lett. 35, 4208 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

M. Gwon, E. Lee, D.-W. Kim, K.-J. Yee, M. J. Lee, and Y. S. Kim, Opt. Express 19, 5895 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

M. Kuttge, F. Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink, Opt. Lett. 35, 4208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, Adv. Mater. 19, 276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Ruppin, Phys. Lett. A 299, 309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 1–2, 693 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Abajo, F.

M. Kuttge, F. Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Babinec, T. M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernède, J. C.

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

Bulu, I.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cattin, L.

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

Choy, J. T.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

del Valle, M. A.

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

Diaz, F. R.

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 1–2, 693 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Godoy, A.

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

Gregersen, N.

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gwon, M.

Han, Z.

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

Hausmann, B. J. M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, S.

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, Y. S.

Koenderink, A. F.

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, F. Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.

Lee, M. J.

Liu, X.

X. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, O. Hansen, and N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 20, 5237 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lorke, M.

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 14, 1957 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Maletinsky, P.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morsli, M.

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

Mortensen, N. A.

Mukai, T.

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, S.

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okamato, K.

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, F. Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, Phys. Lett. A 299, 309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

X. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, O. Hansen, and N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 20, 5237 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, H.

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suhr, T.

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tam, M. C.

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, Adv. Mater. 19, 276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, T.

T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, Adv. Mater. 19, 276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Yacoby, A.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K.-J.

Yin, H.

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, P.

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, O. Hansen, and N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 20, 5237 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zi, J.

X. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, O. Hansen, and N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 20, 5237 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Tsuzuki and S. Tokito, Adv. Mater. 19, 276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tam, H. Su, K. S. Wong, X. Zhu, and H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, M. Lorke, and J. Mørk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 171102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. H. Drexhage, J. Lumin. 1–2, 693 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. Sun, C. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. Han, Z. Cao, and Z. Wang, Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Kuttge, F. Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, Nano Res. 3, 807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

K. Okamato, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 10, 110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, and M. Loncar, Nat. Photon. 5, 738 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

R. Ruppin, Phys. Lett. A 299, 309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

J. C. Bernède, A. Godoy, L. Cattin, F. R. Diaz, M. Morsli, and M. A. del Valle, Solar Energy (INTECH, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematics of the self-assembly and deposition processes. (b) Top-down and cross-sectional (inset) scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the accomplished hybrid photonic-plasmonic structures. (c) Schematic of a photonic-plasmonic structure functionalized with fluorescent BHJ material.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normal-incidence reflection and emission spectra (solid lines) from the sample with photonic-plasmonic structure. The emission spectra from the samples with bare (dashed line) and gold coated (dotted line) plain glass substrates are also plotted for comparison. Emission spectra are normalized to the one with plain glass substrate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated (dashed line) and measured (solid line) normal-incidence reflection spectra of the photonic-plasmonic structure. (b) Refractive indices of the MoO3 and CBP:Ir(piq)3. (c) E-field distribution of selected modes as indicated in (a).

Equations (1)

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V=ϵe|E|2drmax(ϵe|E|2).

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