Abstract

We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

J. Capmany and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 29, 3061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, Opt. Express 18, 9600 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H-K. Lo, New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 43, 130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Ortigosa-Blanch and J. Capmany, Phys. Rev. A 73, 024305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. D. Townsend, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. D. Townsend, Nature 385, 47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 30, 1875 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amaya, W.

J. Mora, A. Ruiz-Alba, W. Amaya, V. Garcia-Muñoz, A. Martínez, and J. Capmany, in Proceedings of the IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 286–289.

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 30, 1875 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 43, 130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 29, 3061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch and J. Capmany, Phys. Rev. A 73, 024305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mora, A. Ruiz-Alba, W. Amaya, V. Garcia-Muñoz, A. Martínez, and J. Capmany, in Proceedings of the IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 286–289.

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, I.

Collins, R. J.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 43, 130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 30, 1875 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dusek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, V.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 43, 130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Pousa, C. R.

J. Capmany and C. R. Fernández-Pousa, IEEE J. Lightwave. Technol. 29, 3061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Garcia-Muñoz, V.

J. Mora, A. Ruiz-Alba, W. Amaya, V. Garcia-Muñoz, A. Martínez, and J. Capmany, in Proceedings of the IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 286–289.

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J. P.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, K. J.

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 43, 130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guerreau, O.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gui, Y. Z.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. F.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H-K.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H-K. Lo, New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malassenet, F. J.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

J. Mora, A. Ruiz-Alba, W. Amaya, V. Garcia-Muñoz, A. Martínez, and J. Capmany, in Proceedings of the IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 286–289.

Mérolla, J.-M.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

Mo, X. F.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mora, J.

J. Mora, A. Ruiz-Alba, W. Amaya, V. Garcia-Muñoz, A. Martínez, and J. Capmany, in Proceedings of the IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 286–289.

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nambu, Y.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch and J. Capmany, Phys. Rev. A 73, 024305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patois, F.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peev, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phoenix, D. J. D.

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 30, 1875 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H-K. Lo, New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H-K. Lo, New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz-Alba, A.

J. Mora, A. Ruiz-Alba, W. Amaya, V. Garcia-Muñoz, A. Martínez, and J. Capmany, in Proceedings of the IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 286–289.

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soujaeff, A.

O. Guerreau, J.-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Ten, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, Opt. Express 18, 9600 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Fernandez, R. J. Collins, K. J. Gordon, P. D. Townsend, and G. S. Buller, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 43, 130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, Nature 385, 47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 30, 1875 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vannel, F.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wei, G.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q. L.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.X

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

Yin, Z. Q.

W. Chen, Z. F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z. Q. Yin, F.X Xu, Q. L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. F. Mo, Y. Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G. C. Guo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Young, R. J.

Yuan, Z. L.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zbiden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental SCM-QKD system to distribute different keys in parallel: AM, amplitude modulator; PM, phase modulator; VCOs, voltage controlled oscillators; Att(1/2)(A/B), electrical attenuators; CWDM, coarse wavelength division mux/demux; EDFA, erbium doped fiber amplifier; RFA, RF amplifier; SPAD, single photon avalanche detector; and Φ(1/2)(A/B), RF phase shifters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Evolution of the sifted key rate for each individual SCM-QKD channel and the multiplexed sifted key rate when SCM multiplexing technique is considered. (b) Measurement of the corresponding QBER for each single channel and for the multiplexed rate.

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