Abstract

We report high-power efficient green light generation by frequency doubling from a periodically poled MgO doped LiNbO3 ridge waveguide. The ridge waveguide is fabricated by the annealed proton-exchanging and precise diamond blade dicing techniques. The ridge structure exhibits a surface roughness of only 3.7 nm, and near-90° vertical sidewall. The total insertion loss of an 8.5 µm wide and 1.4 cm long uncoated waveguide is 3.0 dB under direct fiber coupling. 466 mW of continuous-wave green light with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 69.7% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest green light output power reached to date using a ridge-type LiNbO3 waveguide device. Phase-matching temperature shift, tuning curve distortion, and waveguide loss increase are observed under high power operation. Our analysis shows that the photorefractive effect and the green induced infrared absorption are responsible for the observed phenomena, which becomes prominent under several megawatt per square centimeter power density.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

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2008

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakai, Y. Koyata, and Y. Hirano, Opt. Lett. 31, 3134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, Opt. Lett. 28, 1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

1990

A. Loni, R. W. Keys, and R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. L. Jackel, Electron. Lett. 21, 509 (1985).

Alexandrovski, A.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R. G.

Byer, R. L.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, R. Srivastava, X. Cao, and R. V. Ramaswamy, Opt. Lett. 18, 346 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, S.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

A. Loni, R. W. Keys, and R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Foulon, G.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, M.

Fujiwara, T.

Furukawa, Y.

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Y.

He, S.

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, Y.

Hirohashi, J.

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M. H.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imaeda, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, Opt. Lett. 28, 1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itakura, S.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, M.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, Electron. Lett. 21, 509 (1985).

Kato, Y.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, T.

Keys, R. W.

A. Loni, R. W. Keys, and R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koyata, Y.

Kurimura, S.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, J. R.

Li, Y.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loni, A.

A. Loni, R. W. Keys, and R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Magari, K.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, M.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. D.

Miyamoto, A.

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mizuuchi, K.

Morikawa, A.

Nakajima, H.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. K.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Pavel, N.

N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

Roussev, R. V.

Route, R. K.

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, Opt. Lett. 27, 179 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

Shoji, I.

N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

Sugita, T.

Sun, J.

Suzuki, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tago, T.

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

N. Pavel, I. Shoji, T. Taira, K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tulloch, W. M.

Usui, Y.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Visovsky, N. J.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weise, D. R.

Xia, Y.

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. Q.

Yamaguchi, S.

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

Yanagawa, T.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, Opt. Lett. 28, 1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zah, C. E.

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, L.

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Yoshino, S. Yamaguchi, M. Imaeda, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, H. Itoh, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. L. Jackel, Electron. Lett. 21, 509 (1985).

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Loni, R. W. Keys, and R. M. De La Rue, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

X. Cao, Z. Wang, S. He, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, Opt. Mater. 27, 1596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Hirohashi, T. Tago, O. Nakamura, A. Miyamoto, and Y. Furukawa, Proc. SPIE 6875, 687516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C. E. Zah, Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) (b) SEM image of the APE MgO:PPLN ridge waveguide. The red square in the lower left part of (a) indicates the approximate location of the AFM test. (c) (d) AFM height image in two-dimensional and three-dimensional format. The tested area is 500×500nm square, and the RMS surface roughness (Rq) is 3.72 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematics of waveguide mounting and fiber coupling. (b) Cross-section of flip-mounted MgO:PPLN ridge waveguide. Size of ridge waveguides and the adhesive layer are exaggerated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Green light power (square) and conversion efficiency (circle) curves as a function of total light power. Data were obtained using measured output power plus the out facet’s Fresnel reflection loss of approximately 14.6% for 532 nm light and 13.4% for 1064 nm light.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured QPM temperature shift and waveguide insertion loss increasing at different output power level.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured QPM temperature tuning curves under 100, 200, and 300 mW-level of output power. Peak temperature shift and symmetry distortions are visible under high power density.

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