Abstract

We report a type-II superlattice mid-wave infrared 320×256 imager at 81 K with the M-barrier design that achieved background limited performance (BLIP) and 99% operability. The 280 K blackbody’s photon irradiance was limited by an aperture and a band-pass filter from 3.6 μm to 3.8 μm resulting in a total flux of 5×1012ph.cm2.s1. Under these low-light conditions, and consequently the use of a 13.5 ms integration time, the imager was observed to be BLIP thanks to a 5pA dark current from the 27 μm wide pixels. The total noise was dominated by the photon flux and read-out circuit which gave the imager a noise equivalent input of 5×1010ph.cm2.s1 and temperature sensitivity of 9 mK with F/2.3 optics. Excellent imagery obtained using a 1-point correction alludes to the array’s uniform responsivity.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Wei and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 085316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Aifer, E. H.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beecken, B. P.

Bogdanov, S.

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canedy, C. L.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Delaunay, P. Y.

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fossum, E. R.

Haddadi, A.

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, G.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoang, M.

Hoffman, D.

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, E. K.

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, E. M.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manurkar, P.

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, R.

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, V.

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, B.

Nguyen, B. M.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pour, S. A.

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

E. K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B. Nguyen, M. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi, Opt. Lett. 36, 2560 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wei and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 085316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, “Focal plane arrays in type-II superlattices,” U.S. patent 6,864,552 (March 8, 2005).

Stegall, M.

Sullivan, G. J.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tischler, J. G.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warner, J. H.

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

Y. Wei and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 085316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. Vurgaftman, E. H. Aifer, C. L. Canedy, J. G. Tischler, J. R. Meyer, J. H. Warner, E. M. Jackson, G. Hildebrandt, and G. J. Sullivan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pour, E. K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B. M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 143501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Wei and M. Razeghi, Phys. Rev. B 69, 085316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Hoffman, B. M. Nguyen, E. K. Huang, P. Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manurkar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan, Proc. SPIE 7222, 722215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Delaunay, B. M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E. K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi, Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220W (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Razeghi, “Focal plane arrays in type-II superlattices,” U.S. patent 6,864,552 (March 8, 2005).

FLIR Systems, Inc., “ISC9705 Specifications,” http://www.flir.com/uploadedFiles/9705spec.pdf .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparision between dark and photo charges collected at a 13.5 ms integration time. Under illumination, the FPA was before a narrow-band filter and blackbody. Temporal noise (figure) and distribution (inset) are shown at varying irradiances.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The measured noise was seen in good agreement with the modeled photon, detector dark current and ROIC noise sources.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature sensitivities were measured with changing integration time and observed to have 99% operability with a standard deviation mainly from a nonuniform illumination (inset).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Excellent imagery where blood veins seen in the arm were obtained using tint=13.5ms, a 1-point offset and pixel replacement correction, alluding to the uniform responsivity of the array.

Equations (2)

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Voutput=Voffset+Cgtint[Idarkq+ηΦA],
Vphoto=CgtintηΦA.

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