Abstract

A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) lidar is demonstrated with heterodyne detection. The lidar transmitter utilizes an electro-optic I/Q modulator for the first time to generate carrier-suppressed and frequency-shifted FM modulation. This eliminates the need for an acousto-optic frequency shifter commonly used in heterodyne lidar transmitters. It also allows the use of a much wider modulation bandwidth to improve the range resolution. The capability of complex optical field modulation of the I/Q modulator provides an additional degree of freedom compared with an intensity modulator, which will benefit future lidar applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Vaughan, Physica Scripta T78, 73 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Karlsson, F. A. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, Appl. Opt. 39, 3716 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
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  5. M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Karlsson and F. A. Olsson, Appl. Opt. 38, 3376 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Zhang, M. O’Sullivan, and R. Hui, Opt. Express 19, 21880 (2011).
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2011 (1)

2009 (2)

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Adany, C. Allen, and R. Hui, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. M. Vaughan, Physica Scripta T78, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. J. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE T. Microw. Theory 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adany, P.

Allen, C.

Augere, B.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Besson, C.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bricteux, L.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brousmiche, S.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canat, G.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.-P.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contarino, V. M.

L. J. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE T. Microw. Theory 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, A.

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Durecu, A.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, D.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goular, D.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, M.

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Karlsson, F. A. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, Appl. Opt. 39, 3716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herczfeld, P. R.

L. J. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE T. Microw. Theory 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

Karlsson, C. J.

Kopp, F.

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Köpp, F.

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

Lombard, L.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lugan, S.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macq, B.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, L. J.

L. J. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE T. Microw. Theory 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M.

Olsson, F. A.

Olsson, F. A. A.

Valla, M.

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughan, Physica Scripta T78, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vieira, A. J. C.

L. J. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE T. Microw. Theory 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. I.

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Aerosp. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Kopp, A. Dolfi, and J.-P. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. I. Young, F. Köpp, A. Dolfi, and J. Cariou, Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 6, 325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, G. Canat, M. Valla, B. Augere, C. Besson, D. Goular, L. Lombard, J.-P. Cariou, A. Durecu, D. Fleury, L. Bricteux, S. Brousmiche, S. Lugan, and B. Macq, IEEE J Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Microw. Theory (1)

L. J. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE T. Microw. Theory 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Physica Scripta (1)

J. M. Vaughan, Physica Scripta T78, 73 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of the simplified heterodyne detection lidar system based on an I/Q modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical single sideband modulated signal and optical LO.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Heterodyne IF spectra with B=100MHz (a), B=2GHz (b), and B=4.3GHz (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency down-converted spectra for the system with 100 MHz (a), 2 GHz (b), and 4.3 GHz (c) modulation bandwidths.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fR=(f2f1)Δt/T=2BR/(cT),
VI(t)=VDcos(2πf1t+πf2f1Tt2),
VQ(t)=VDsin(2πf1t+πf2f1Tt2),
E0=Es[sin(πVI(t)Vπ)cos(2πf0t)+sin(πVQ(t)Vπ)sin(2πf0t)],
E0Escos[2πf0t(2πf1t+πf2f1Tt2)].

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