Abstract

We experimentally realize a Fabry–Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings that enclose a subwavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F=86 while the on-resonance transmission is T=11%. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. These characteristics, combined with the demonstrated ease of use and advantageous mode geometry, open a realm of applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, New J. Phys. 10, 053003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 274 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Lindner, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Express 17, 12523 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 2008).
  17. F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053826 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Lindner, C. Chojetzki, S. Brückner, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, Opt. Express 17, 12523 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, New J. Phys. 10, 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2003

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alt, W.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

Becker, M.

Berman, P.

P. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 2008).

Brambilla, G.

M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, S.

Bruse, F.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chojetzki, C.

Colombe, Y.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dan, C.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deasy, K.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delley, Y.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, M.

M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, G.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Fernandez, R.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldwin, J.

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, S.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, New J. Phys. 10, 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, E.

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Hunger, D.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karapetyan, K.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kenner, J.

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Le Kien, F.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Lindner, E.

Linke, F.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morrissey, M. J.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, K. P.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, New J. Phys. 10, 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nic Chormaic, S.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noda, T.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pöllinger, M.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K.

Ratnapala, A.

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rehband, O.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, J.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reitz, D.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renn, A.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rettenmaier, A.

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M.

Sagué, G.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, T.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stiebeiner, A.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoferle, T.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toninelli, C.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toubaru, K.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, M.

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Vetsch, E.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warken, F.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiedemann, U.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yariv, A.

Zhao, H.-Q.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 105, 3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Shea, A. Rettenmaier, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Appl. Phys. B 99, 623 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stoferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ding, P. Wang, T. Lee, and G. Brambilla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

F. Le Kien, K. P. Nayak, and K. Hakuta, J. Mod. Opt. 59, 274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H.-Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, Nano Lett. 11, 4362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

J. Goldwin, M. Trupke, J. Kenner, A. Ratnapala, and E. Hinds, Nat. Commun. 2, 418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

K. P. Nayak and K. Hakuta, New J. Phys. 10, 053003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 79, 043813 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Le Kien and K. Hakuta, Phys. Rev. A 84, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, Y. Wu, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Nic Chormaic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 053102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. Inset, TOF microresonator. See text for details.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spectral transmission and reflection of the TOF microresonator. Within the 0.2 nm wide stop band, the TOF microresonator modes show up as peaks (dips) in the transmission (reflection). (b) Spectral transmission signal over one FSR. The two resonances per FSR in the upper trace correspond to two orthogonal quasi-linearly polarized modes that are split due to intrinsic birefringence. For the lower trace, the polarization of the input light was chosen to match one of these modes. The solid red lines are Airy-function fits.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FBG cavity finesses before (circles) and after tapering the fiber (squares) as a function of the laser detuning. Triangles, see text.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=πr1r2tc21r1r2tc2,
tc2=F02(2F12+π2π4F12+π2)F12(2F02+π2π4F02+π2).
g(κ,γ).
C=g2/2κγ1,
C=3ϵ0E02Fβ3ΔνFSR,

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