Abstract

One-way-propagating broadly tunable terahertz plasmonic waveguide at a subwavelength scale is proposed based on a metal–dielectric–semiconductor structure. Unlike other one-way plasmonic devices that are based on interference effects of surface plasmons, the proposed one-way device is based on nonreciprocal surface magneto plasmons under an external magnetic field. Theoretical and simulation results demonstrate that the one-way-propagating frequency band can be broadly tuned by the external magnetic fields. The proposed concept can be used to realize various high performance tunable plasmonic devices such as isolators, switches and splitters for ultracompact integrated plasmonic circuits.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published online, November 2, 2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, Nat. Photon. 3, 630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger and C. Sirtori, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. S. Kushwaha and P. Halevi, Phys. Rev. B 36, 5960 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1193 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baron, P.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belyanin, A.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

V. Berger and C. Sirtori, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

Brion, J.

J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A. G.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I.

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, Nat. Photon. 3, 630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukunaga, K.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furdyna, J. K.

E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1193 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gan, D.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halevi, P.

M. S. Kushwaha and P. Halevi, Phys. Rev. B 36, 5960 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hartstein, A.

J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hosako, I.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B.

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published online, November 2, 2011).
[CrossRef]

Janke, C.

Kasai, Y.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kok, S. W.

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published online, November 2, 2011).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Kushwaha, M. S.

M. S. Kushwaha and P. Halevi, Phys. Rev. B 36, 5960 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendrok, J.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ochiai, S.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1193 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Patrashin, M.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

Saito, S.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, N.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seta, T.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

V. Berger and C. Sirtori, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, R. F.

J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published online, November 2, 2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yue, S.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published online, November 2, 2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, Nat. Photon. 3, 630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Belkin, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, A. Belyanin, S. P. Khanna, A. G. Davis, E. Linfield, and F. Capasso, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 952 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, Nat. Photon. 3, 630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Nat. Photon. 2, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. S. Kushwaha and P. Halevi, Phys. Rev. B 36, 5960 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1455 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 23902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics (1)

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published online, November 2, 2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. Hosako, N. Sekine, M. Patrashin, S. Saito, K. Fukunaga, Y. Kasai, P. Baron, T. Seta, J. Mendrok, S. Ochiai, and H. Yasuda, Proc. IEEE 95, 1611 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1193 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

V. Berger and C. Sirtori, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic structure of the one-way-propagating THz plasmonic waveguide. It is composed of metal (upper), dielectric (middle), and semiconductor (lower) layers. (b) Dispersion relations of the THz surface magneto plasmons without and with an external MF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(d) Field distribution |Hy|2 of the forward- and backward-propagating waves in a sub-wavelength slit with and without an external MF. The width and length of the slit are 0.1λp and 300 μm, respectively. The incident frequency is ω=0.6ωps, which is in the one-way-propagating frequency band. The arrows indicate the incident directions. (e) Transmitted intensities of the forward- [corresponding to (c)] and backward-propagating [corresponding to (d)] waves when 1 T MF is applied.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effects of (a) the external MFs B and (b) the permittivity of the dielectric layer εd on the one-way-propagating frequency band. ωV represents the cutoff frequency. Δω=ωVbωVf is the bandwidth of the one-way-propagating band.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

|Hy|2 distributions of a designed THz plasmonic switch tuned by an external MF. (a) The MF direction is along the y axis. (b) The MF direction is along the y axis.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε=ε[εxx0εxz0εyy0εxz0εxx],
Hy(II)=Ceκ2(xw/2),Ez(II)=iκ2ωε0εmCeκ2(xw/2),Hy(I)=Aeκ1x+Beκ1x,Ez(I)=iκ1ωε0εd(Aeκ1xBeκ1x),Hy(III)=Deκ3(x+w/2),Ez(III)=iβεs,xzDeκ3(x+w/2)εs,xxκ3Deκ3(x+w/2)iωε0(εs,xx2+εs,xz2),
{κ2κ3κ121εmεs+1εd2iβκ2κ12εs,xzεmεsεs,xx}tanh(κ1w)+[κ3κ11εdεs+κ2κ11εmεdiβκ1εs,xzεdεsεs,xx]=0.
ωVf=12[ωc2+4ωps2ε/(εd+ε)ωc]ωVb=12[ωc2+4ωps2ωc],

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