Abstract

This Letter describes the fabrication of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) bimaterial terahertz (THz) sensor operating at 3.8 THz. The incident THz radiation is absorbed by a metamaterial structure integrated with the bimaterial. The absorber was designed with a resonant frequency matching the quantum cascade laser illumination source while simultaneously providing structural support, desired thermomechanical properties and optical readout access. Measurement showed that the fabricated absorber has nearly 90% absorption at 3.8 THz. A responsivity of 0.1°/μW and a time constant of 14 ms were observed. The use of metamaterial absorbers allows for tuning the sensor response to the desired frequency to achieve high sensitivity for potential THz imaging applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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T. Maier and H. Bruckl, Opt. Lett. 34, 3012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, Opt. Express 16, 7181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 33, 440 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. A. Wood, Semicond. Semimet. 47, 43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Behnken, N.

Bingham, C. M.

Boucherif, A.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruckl, H.

Cao, J.

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, D. R.

Chen, D.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chen, Z.

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. Z.

H. Luo, Y. Z. Cheng, and R. Z. Gong, Eur. Phys. J. B 81, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Datskos, P. G.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. W.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fan, K.

Fathololoumi, S.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, R. Z.

H. Luo, Y. Z. Cheng, and R. Z. Gong, Eur. Phys. J. B 81, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grant, J.

Grbovic, D.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inokuti, M.

Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 306–406.

Jiao, B.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Kadlec, E. A.

Karunasiri, G.

Khalid, A.

Kumar, S.

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laframboise, S. R.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

Lavrik, N. V.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. M.

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lei, K.

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Liu, H. C.

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, Y. Z. Cheng, and R. Z. Gong, Eur. Phys. J. B 81, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Maier, T.

Miao, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Mosallaei, H.

H. Mosallaei and K. Sarabandi, in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1B (IEEE, 2005), pp. 615–618.

O’Hara, J. F.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

Pan, L.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rajic, S.

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robrish, P. R.

Saha, S. C.

Sarabandi, K.

H. Mosallaei and K. Sarabandi, in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1B (IEEE, 2005), pp. 615–618.

Shaner, E. A.

Shiles, E.

Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 306–406.

Smith, Y.

Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 306–406.

Strikwerda, A. C.

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. A.

R. A. Wood, Semicond. Semimet. 47, 43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Xiong, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

H. Luo, Y. Z. Cheng, and R. Z. Gong, Eur. Phys. J. B 81, 387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Fathololoumi, D. Ban, H. Luo, E. Dupont, S. R. Laframboise, A. Boucherif, and H. C. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optoelectron. Lett. (1)

Q. Zhang, Z. Miao, Z. Guo, F. Dong, Z. Xiong, X. Wu, D. Chen, C. Li, and B. Jiao, Optoelectron. Lett. 3, 119 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Cao, Z. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Zhang, K. Lei, and B. Zhao, Proc. SPIE 7383, 73834J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Semimet. (1)

R. A. Wood, Semicond. Semimet. 47, 43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

F. Dong, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, L. Pan, Z. Guo, W. Wang, Z. Duan, and X. W. Dong, Sens. Actuators A 133, 236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Mosallaei and K. Sarabandi, in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1B (IEEE, 2005), pp. 615–618.

Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1998), pp. 306–406.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Micrograph of the bimaterial MEMS sensor before releasing and (b) optical profilometry profile of the released pixel. It can be seen in (b) that the pixel membrane is deformed due to residual stress.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured (dotted curve) and simulated (dashed curve) absorption spectra of the metamaterial structure. Note that the peak absorption matches well with the measured QCL emission frequency (solid curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular deflection of the pixel membrane as a function of temperature by heating it under ambient conditions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Speed of operation of the sensor measured by sweeping the gating frequency of the QCL power supply. The inset shows the temporal response of the detector at 1 Hz.

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