Abstract

A series of vanadium-doped lithium niobate crystals was grown and their photorefractive properties were investigated with a 532 nm laser. At a total light intensity of 471mW/cm2, a short response time of only 0.57 s was achieved for 0.1 mol.% vanadium in LiNbO3. The photorefractive process is dominated by the diffusion field instead of the photovoltaic field. The dominant charge carriers are electrons. The possible mechanism for the fast photorefractive response is discussed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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F. S. Chen, J. T. LaMacchia, and D. B. Fraser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 223 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
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K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

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E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Krätzig, E.

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A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Ling, T.

Liu, D.

Liu, F.

Liu, L.

Liu, S.

Y. Dong, S. Liu, W. Li, Y. Kong, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, F. Liu, T. Tian, S. Liu, S. Chen, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Loheide, S.

Ma, C.

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[CrossRef]

McMillen, D. K.

Medrano, C.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Momtahan, O.

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K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

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A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 25, 539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

Rupp, R.

Sabbert, D.

Singleton, J.

Smith, R. G.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

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G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 14, 2529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tian, T.

Wagner, J.

Wu, Z.

Xu, J.

Y. Dong, S. Liu, W. Li, Y. Kong, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, F. Liu, T. Tian, S. Liu, S. Chen, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 34, 3896 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 14, 2529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 14, 2529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 14, 2529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Zhu, D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. S. Chen, J. T. LaMacchia, and D. B. Fraser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 223 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, J. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (2)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Haw, Nature 422, 556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 14, 2529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, and D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time dependence of the diffraction efficiency of LiNbO3:V crystals. (a) LN:V0.1, (b) LN:V0.3, (c) LN:V0.5, (d) LN:V0.7, and LN:V1.0.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time dependence of the signal beam Is and the reference beam IR in a two-wave coupling experiment for LN:V0.1. Inset, temporal curve of the reference beam IR when the shutter is closed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized erasing curves for LiNbO3:Vx, where x=0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mol.%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmittance of LN:V1.0 before and after sensitization by an A400 mercury lamp at wavelengths centered at 365 nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Photorefractive Parameters of LiNbO3:V Crystals, Total Light Intensities 471mW/cm2, Light Wavelength 532 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fit Parameters of the Normalized Erasing Curves for LN:Vx (x=0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mol.%)

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