Abstract

An experimental method for characterizing the time-resolved phase noise of a fast switching tunable laser is discussed. The method experimentally determines a complementary cumulative distribution function of the laser’s differential phase as a function of time after a switching event. A time resolved bit error rate of differential quadrature phase shift keying formatted data, calculated using the phase noise measurements, was fitted to an experimental time-resolved bit error rate measurement using a field programmable gate array, finding a good agreement between the time-resolved bit error rates.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.
  2. A. K. Mishra, A. D. Ellis, L. P. Barry, and T. Farrell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC4.
  3. D. Derickson, Fibre Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 1998).
  4. K. Kikuchi, Opt. Express 20, 5291 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Thomsen, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, and S. J. Savory, Opt. Express 19, B770 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

B. C. Thomsen, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, and S. J. Savory, Opt. Express 19, B770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anandarajah, P. M.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mishra, A. D. Ellis, L. P. Barry, and T. Farrell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC4.

Bessler, V. M.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Bishop, D. J.

D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.

Brien, P. O.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Browning, C.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fibre Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 1998).

Ellis, A. D.

A. K. Mishra, A. D. Ellis, L. P. Barry, and T. Farrell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC4.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Farrell, T.

A. K. Mishra, A. D. Ellis, L. P. Barry, and T. Farrell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC4.

Hartman, A. R.

D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.

Huynh, T. N.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S. K.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Kikuchi, K.

Kilper, D. C.

D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.

Korotky, S. K.

D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.

Maher, R.

Millar, D. S.

Mishra, A. K.

A. K. Mishra, A. D. Ellis, L. P. Barry, and T. Farrell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC4.

O’Dowd, J. A.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Peters, F. H.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Reid, D.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roycroft, B.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Savory, S. J.

Shi, K.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, F.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suvakovic, D.

D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.

Thomsen, B. C.

Walsh, A. J.

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

Watts, R.

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Shi, R. Watts, D. Reid, T. N. Huynh, C. Browning, P. M. Anandarajah, F. Smyth, and L. P. Barry, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (4)

D. J. Bishop, A. R. Hartman, D. C. Kilper, S. K. Korotky, and D. Suvakovic, in Military Communications Conference, 2010 (Milcom, 2010), pp. 2047–2049.

A. K. Mishra, A. D. Ellis, L. P. Barry, and T. Farrell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OTuC4.

D. Derickson, Fibre Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 1998).

J. A. O’Dowd, V. M. Bessler, S. K. Ibrahim, A. J. Walsh, F. H. Peters, B. Corbett, B. Roycroft, P. O. Brien, and A. D. Ellis, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks 2011 (IEEE, 2011), paper We.D1.2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of coherent receiver setup to measure the instantaneous phase of a fast-switching tunable laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Histogram of differential phase (red with vertical axis on the left) and CCDF of differential phase (black with vertical axis on the right) at 5.1 ns with a sampling interval of 100 ps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-resolved CCDF plotted for a sampling interval of 100 ps. White vertical line indicates CCDF from Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time-resolved CCDF of the absolute corrected differential phase; the white horizontal lines represent the DQPSK tolerance lines at π/4 and at 3π/4.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of C-BERs (continuous red line with steady-state frequency removed and black line with AMZI bias removed) and experimentally acquired TR-BER (blue circles). Note that while the value of the sampling interval, T, is 100 ps for the CCDFs, and the measured data has a symbol period of 93 ps, no correction for this difference was required.

Equations (3)

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ϕcoh(t)=Δω(t)t+ϕns(t)+ϕ0,
Δϕcoh(t)=ϕcoh(tT)ϕcoh(t),
BER=12P(3π4>|Δϕcoh-cor(t)|π4)+P(|Δϕcoh-cor(t)|3π4).

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