Abstract

We investigated the wavelength dependence of the focusing properties of a germanium-cylinder-based two-dimensional (2D) decagonal Penrose-type photonic quasicrystal (PQC) flat lens for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We found that near the second bandgap and in the high-frequency side (between the bandgap boundary and the first light intensity peak) of the pass band, the flat lens can exhibit a focusing effect for a point light source and that the focusing wavelengths can directly be drawn from the photonic band structure. For all the focusing wavelengths, the summation of the object distance and the image distance is less than the thickness of the flat lens when the object distance is half the thickness of the flat lens. As the wavelength increases, the image distance, the image quality, and the effective refractive index of the flat lens increase, whereas the image power of the point light source decreases. The effective refractive index of the flat lens is less than 1.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

J. J. Liu, Z. G. Fan, H. S. Xiao, W. Zhang, C. Y. Guan, and L. B. Yuan, J. Infrared Millim. Waves 31, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

X. B. Ren and K. Ren, Solid State Commun. 151, 42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Neve-Oz, T. Pollok, S. Burger, M. Golosovsky, and D. Davidov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

H. B. Chen, X. S. Chen, R. L. Zhou, and W. Lu, Solid State Commun. 146, 192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, X. B. Ren, Z. Y. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

X. D. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Feng, X. D. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Chen, S. L. He, and L. F. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z. F. Ren, and K. Kempa, Opt. Express 12, 2919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Hu, X. S. Xu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Jin, B. Y. Cheng, B. Y. Man, Z. L. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. S. Chan, C. T. Chan, and Z. Y. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Cratias, and J. W. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anandl, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreone, A.

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blech, I.

D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Cratias, and J. W. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Academic, 1999), p. 462.

Burger, S.

Y. Neve-Oz, T. Pollok, S. Burger, M. Golosovsky, and D. Davidov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cahn, J. W.

D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Cratias, and J. W. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Castaldi, G.

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

Y. S. Chan, C. T. Chan, and Z. Y. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. S.

Y. S. Chan, C. T. Chan, and Z. Y. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. B.

H. B. Chen, X. S. Chen, R. L. Zhou, and W. Lu, Solid State Commun. 146, 192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, S. L. He, and L. F. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. S.

H. B. Chen, X. S. Chen, R. L. Zhou, and W. Lu, Solid State Commun. 146, 192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. Y.

X. D. Zhang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 1292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Feng, X. D. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Hu, X. S. Xu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Jin, B. Y. Cheng, B. Y. Man, Z. L. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cratias, D.

D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Cratias, and J. W. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Davidov, D.

Y. Neve-Oz, T. Pollok, S. Burger, M. Golosovsky, and D. Davidov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Gennaro, E.

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. G.

J. J. Liu, Z. G. Fan, H. S. Xiao, W. Zhang, C. Y. Guan, and L. B. Yuan, J. Infrared Millim. Waves 31, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. F.

Z. F. Feng, X. D. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

French, O.

Galdi, V.

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golosovsky, M.

Y. Neve-Oz, T. Pollok, S. Burger, M. Golosovsky, and D. Davidov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gralak, B.

Guan, C. Y.

J. J. Liu, Z. G. Fan, H. S. Xiao, W. Zhang, C. Y. Guan, and L. B. Yuan, J. Infrared Millim. Waves 31, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. Chen, S. L. He, and L. F. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hopcraft, K. I.

Hu, X. Y.

Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Hu, X. S. Xu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ingrey, P. C.

Jakeman, E.

Jin, C. J.

C. J. Jin, B. Y. Cheng, B. Y. Man, Z. L. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd. ed. (Academic, 2008).

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd. ed. (Academic, 2008).

Kempa, K.

Li, Z. H.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. L.

C. J. Jin, B. Y. Cheng, B. Y. Man, Z. L. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

K. Ren, X. B. Ren, Z. Y. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 1292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Feng, X. D. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. J.

J. J. Liu, Z. G. Fan, H. S. Xiao, W. Zhang, C. Y. Guan, and L. B. Yuan, J. Infrared Millim. Waves 31, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Y. S. Chan, C. T. Chan, and Z. Y. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

H. B. Chen, X. S. Chen, R. L. Zhou, and W. Lu, Solid State Commun. 146, 192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Man, B. Y.

C. J. Jin, B. Y. Cheng, B. Y. Man, Z. L. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd. ed. (Academic, 2008).

Meng, W. J.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miletto, C.

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morello, D.

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neve-Oz, Y.

Y. Neve-Oz, T. Pollok, S. Burger, M. Golosovsky, and D. Davidov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, R.

Pierro, V.

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollok, T.

Y. Neve-Oz, T. Pollok, S. Burger, M. Golosovsky, and D. Davidov, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, K.

X. B. Ren and K. Ren, Solid State Commun. 151, 42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, X. B. Ren, Z. Y. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X. B.

X. B. Ren and K. Ren, Solid State Commun. 151, 42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, X. B. Ren, Z. Y. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. F.

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savo, S.

E. Di Gennaro, D. Morello, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, G. Castaldi, V. Galdi, and V. Pierro, Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Gennaro, C. Miletto, S. Savo, A. Andreone, D. Morello, V. Galdi, G. Castaldi, and V. Pierro, Phys. Rev. B 77, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shechtman, D.

D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Cratias, and J. W. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L. F.

L. Chen, S. L. He, and L. F. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. G.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smigaj, W.

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tayeb, G.

Thylén, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anandl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y. Q.

Z. F. Feng, X. D. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Hu, X. S. Xu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd. ed. (Academic, 2008).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Academic, 1999), p. 462.

Xiao, H. S.

J. J. Liu, Z. G. Fan, H. S. Xiao, W. Zhang, C. Y. Guan, and L. B. Yuan, J. Infrared Millim. Waves 31, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. S.

Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Hu, X. S. Xu, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 68, 165106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, B. G.

T. G. Shen, W. J. Meng, J. Sun, Z. H. Li, B. G. Yuan, G. Wang, and M. Huang, Appl. Phys. B 100, 841 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L. B.

J. J. Liu, Z. G. Fan, H. S. Xiao, W. Zhang, C. Y. Guan, and L. B. Yuan, J. Infrared Millim. Waves 31, 35 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Z.

K. Ren, X. B. Ren, Z. Y. Li, and D. Z. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhang, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, Opt. Express 15, 1292 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) 2D decagonal Penrose-type PQC, (b) flat lens model, (c) photonic band structure of 2D PQC flat lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

2D PQC flat lens focusing (λ=2.140μm, TM, cT=300μm): (a) contour map of Ey, (b) focusing field power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

2D PQC flat lens focusing for TM mode: (a) axial plane, (b) image plane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2D PQC flat lens focusing (λ=2.485μm, TE, cT=168μm): (a) contour map of Hy, (b) focusing field power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

2D PQC flat lens focusing for TE mode: (a) axial plane, (b) image plane.

Equations (1)

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u+v=σd,σ<1.

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