Abstract

We used a supercontinuum-based scanning white-light interferometer to characterize the oscillation of a MEMS device. The output of a commercially available supercontinuum light source (FiberWare Ilum II USB) was modulated to achieve stroboscopic operation. By synchronizing the modulation frequency of the source to the sample oscillation, dynamic 3-D profile measurements were recorded. These results were validated against those obtained with a white light LED setup. The measured maximum deflection of a 400×25×4μm3 microbridge driven with 0–6.8 V sinusoidal voltage at 10 Hz was 1.42±0.03μm (supercontinuum), which agreed with the LED measurement. The method shows promise for characterization of high-frequency MEMS devices.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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2009 (2)

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, Opt. Lett. 34, 1582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, and J. Gimzewski, J Opt. A 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
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L. C. Chen, Y. T. Huang, and K. C. Fan, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 12, 299 (2007).
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2006 (2)

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A. Bosseboeuf and S. Petitgrand, J Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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M. R. Hart, R. A. Conant, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 409 (2000).
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J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
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P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, J Mod. Opt. 44, 519 (1997).
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P. de Groot and L. Deck, J Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
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I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, Opt. Lett. 34, 1582 (2009).
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L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aaltonen, J. P.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abbadi, I.

Alekseenko, I.

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer Verlag, 2006).

Billson, D.

L. Davis, D. Billson, D. Hutchins, and R. Noble, Acous. Res. Lett. Online 6, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bosseboeuf, A.

A. Bosseboeuf and S. Petitgrand, J Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brun, G.

Chen, L. C.

L. C. Chen, Y. T. Huang, and K. C. Fan, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 12, 299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chim, S. S. C.

Chong, W. K.

Conant, R. A.

M. R. Hart, R. A. Conant, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Danaie, K.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L.

L. Davis, D. Billson, D. Hutchins, and R. Noble, Acous. Res. Lett. Online 6, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, Appl. Opt. 45, 5840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deck, L.

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Devillers, R.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, J Mod. Opt. 44, 519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dresel, T.

Fan, J.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Fan, K. C.

L. C. Chen, Y. T. Huang, and K. C. Fan, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 12, 299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franssila, S.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Gaspar, J.

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, J.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, and J. Gimzewski, J Opt. A 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigoras, K.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Hæggström, E.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, Opt. Lett. 34, 1582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hæggström, E. O.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanhijärvi, K.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, Opt. Lett. 34, 1582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M. R.

M. R. Hart, R. A. Conant, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

Huang, Y. T.

L. C. Chen, Y. T. Huang, and K. C. Fan, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 12, 299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, D.

L. Davis, D. Billson, D. Hutchins, and R. Noble, Acous. Res. Lett. Online 6, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacquot, M.

Kassamakov, I.

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, Opt. Lett. 34, 1582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kassamakov, I. V.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Laakso, A.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Larkin, K. G.

Lau, K. Y.

M. R. Hart, R. A. Conant, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Ludvigsen, H.

Muller, R. S.

M. R. Hart, R. A. Conant, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noble, R.

L. Davis, D. Billson, D. Hutchins, and R. Noble, Acous. Res. Lett. Online 6, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novak, E.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, and J. Gimzewski, J Opt. A 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oinonen, M. J.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Österberg,, J. M.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petitgrand, S.

A. Bosseboeuf and S. Petitgrand, J Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Plata, A.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, J Mod. Opt. 44, 519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radivojevic, Z. P.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Reed, J.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, and J. Gimzewski, J Opt. A 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reolon, D.

Saarela, V.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Saarikko, H.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sainiemi, L.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Sandoz, P.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, J Mod. Opt. 44, 519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. E.

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, J.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, and J. Gimzewski, J Opt. A 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seppänen, H. O.

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

Vähänissi, V.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

Veillas, C.

Venzke, H.

Verrier, I.

Wijesoma, S.

Windeler, R. S.

Yahiaoui, R.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acous. Res. Lett. Online (1)

L. Davis, D. Billson, D. Hutchins, and R. Noble, Acous. Res. Lett. Online 6, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. (1)

L. C. Chen, Y. T. Huang, and K. C. Fan, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 12, 299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

M. R. Hart, R. A. Conant, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Bosseboeuf and S. Petitgrand, J Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J Mod. Opt. (2)

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, and A. Plata, J Mod. Opt. 44, 519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J Opt. A (1)

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, and J. Gimzewski, J Opt. A 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

I. V. Kassamakov, H. O. Seppänen, M. J. Oinonen, E. O. Hæggström, J. M. Österberg,, J. P. Aaltonen, H. Saarikko, and Z. P. Radivojevic, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Pedrini, J. Gaspar, M. E. Schmidt, I. Alekseenko, O. Paul, and W. Osten, Opt. Eng. 50, 101504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser. Eng. (1)

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. (1)

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 149, 305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, J. Fan, V. Saarela, V. Vähänissi, A. Laakso, and S. Franssila, in Proceedings Eurosensors 2008, (2008), p. 806.

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer Verlag, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the SC-SWLI instrument. Abbreviations: L—lens, PD—photo diode, MF—multi-mode fiber, G—microscope slide, B—beam splitter. Inset: Steady state output of the laser consists of 1 ns pulses at fpulse=8kHz. In stroboscopic operation, the output is periodically switched on and off.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Interferogram measured from a flat aluminum mirror. Temporal coherence length is the FWHM of the Gaussian fit. Inset: Spectrum of the SC source (provided by the manufacturer).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stroboscopically frozen 3-D profile of the microbridge at 6.8 V, 10 Hz (φ=90°). Inset: SEM image of the microbridge. Scale bar: 20 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2-D profiles measured across the bridge at 10 Hz, φ=0°, 45°, 90°.

Equations (1)

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Δxx=sinπDπD,

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