Abstract

We report on a noninvasive and noncontact all-optical method to measure the elasticity of the cornea. We use a pulsed laser to excite surface acoustic waves (SAW) that propagate on the corneal surface, then use a phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system to remotely record the SAWs from which the corneal elasticity is estimated. In addition, the system is able to provide real-time tomographic images of the cornea being examined, an important consideration for clinical studies. While precisely maintaining a range of intraocular pressures (IOP), a series of measurements is performed on ex vivo intact primate eyes. The measurement results not only demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system to remotely measure the corneal elasticity, but also suggest a strong correlation between the corneal stiffness and the true IOP.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

R. K. Wang, and A. L. Nuttall, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Kotecha, Surv. Ophthalmol. 52, S109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. J. Dupps, J. Refract. Surg. 21, 186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, and T. Seiler, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. F. Comaish and M. A. Lawless, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 2206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Orssengo and D. Pye, Bull. Math. Biol. 61, 551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. R. Bryant, K. Szerenyi, H. Schmotzer, and P. J. McDonnell, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3022 (1994).

1992

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Caneiro, D.

An, L.

Bercoff, J.

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, M. R.

M. R. Bryant, K. Szerenyi, H. Schmotzer, and P. J. McDonnell, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3022 (1994).

Cartwright, N. E. K.

N. E. K. Cartwright, J. R. Tyrer, and J. Marshall, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 4324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Comaish, I. F.

I. F. Comaish and M. A. Lawless, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 2206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupps, W. J.

W. J. Dupps, J. Refract. Surg. 21, 186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gennisson, J.

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guan, G.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. H.

Johnstone, M.

Kaluzny, B. J.

Karnowski, K.

Kotecha, A.

A. Kotecha, Surv. Ophthalmol. 52, S109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lawless, M. A.

I. F. Comaish and M. A. Lawless, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 2206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. H.

Li, P.

Liu, J.

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

N. E. K. Cartwright, J. R. Tyrer, and J. Marshall, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 4324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, P. J.

M. R. Bryant, K. Szerenyi, H. Schmotzer, and P. J. McDonnell, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3022 (1994).

Neubrand, A.

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nuttall, A. L.

R. K. Wang, and A. L. Nuttall, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orssengo, G.

G. Orssengo and D. Pye, Bull. Math. Biol. 61, 551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pye, D.

G. Orssengo and D. Pye, Bull. Math. Biol. 61, 551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, C. J.

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmotzer, H.

M. R. Bryant, K. Szerenyi, H. Schmotzer, and P. J. McDonnell, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3022 (1994).

Seiler, T.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, and T. Seiler, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. T.

Spoerl, E.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, and T. Seiler, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szerenyi, K.

M. R. Bryant, K. Szerenyi, H. Schmotzer, and P. J. McDonnell, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3022 (1994).

Tanter, M.

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Touboul, D.

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyrer, J. R.

N. E. K. Cartwright, J. R. Tyrer, and J. Marshall, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 4324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Li, L. An, T. T. Shen, M. Johnstone, and R. K. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, and A. L. Nuttall, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K. K.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wollensak, G.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, and T. Seiler, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Bull. Math. Biol.

G. Orssengo and D. Pye, Bull. Math. Biol. 61, 551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

M. Tanter, D. Touboul, J. Gennisson, J. Bercoff, and M. Fink, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 1881 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

M. R. Bryant, K. Szerenyi, H. Schmotzer, and P. J. McDonnell, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3022 (1994).

N. E. K. Cartwright, J. R. Tyrer, and J. Marshall, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 4324 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Neubrand and P. Hess, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

R. K. Wang, and A. L. Nuttall, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, and T. Seiler, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Comaish and M. A. Lawless, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 2206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31, 146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Soc. Interface

C. Li, G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, J. R. Soc. Interface 9, 831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg.

W. J. Dupps, J. Refract. Surg. 21, 186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Surv. Ophthalmol.

A. Kotecha, Surv. Ophthalmol. 52, S109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of system setup consisting of three main parts: laser SAW generation, PhS-OCT detection, and perfusion system to precisely control IOP of the sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical OCT cross-section image of the sample and a brief sketch of the locations of laser excitation beam and OCT probe beams for measuring SAWs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical laser-induced SAWs recorded by PhS-OCT at the cornea surface with the IOP controlled at 5 mm Hg (left) and 15 mm Hg (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Estimated SAW group velocities and corresponding Young’s moduli during one cycle of IOP loading and unloading. The error bars denote standard deviation.

Equations (1)

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CR=(0.87+1.12υ)E/[2ρ(1+υ)]/(1+υ),

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