Abstract

We investigate degenerate four wave mixing with nanosecond pulses in fused silica photonic crystal fibers. Phase-matching curves are calculated taking into account the material and waveguide dispersion. Experiments with a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG pump laser and relatively short fiber lengths show more than an octave spanning conversion to idler and signal wavelengths at 3.105 μm and 0.642 μm, respectively. Conversion efficiency depends on the fiber length and pump intensity and is limited in our experiments by damage of the fiber input facet. Our results represent a new stretch towards the limit of the silica transmission window in the mid-infrared (IR).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Klocek, ed., Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials (New York, 1991).

2010

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

2009

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).

D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Lett. 34, 3499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2004

2003

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Biancalana, F.

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, Opt. Express 12, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Efimov, A.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. L.

Feve, J. P.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Jauregui, C.

Joly, N.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lasri, J.

Limpert, J.

Lyngnes, O.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Nodop, D.

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Radic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).

Schimpf, D.

Schrader, P. E.

Sharping, J. E.

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sorokina, I. T.

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer, 2003).

Taylor, A. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer, 2003).

Vogel, K.

Wadsworth, W.

Zlatanovic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 114 (2009).

Nature

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nature 4, 561 (2010).

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer, 2003).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

P. Klocek, ed., Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials (New York, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Numerically calculated (Rsoft FEMSIM) effective refractive index as a function of wavelength for bulk silica [red curve], for a 20 μm core endlessly single-mode PCF (NKT LMA-20) [green curve] and for a 12 μm core endlessly single-mode PCF (NKT ESM-12-01) [blue curve]. Inset—calculated fundamental mode intensity distribution at a wavelength of 1064 nm for the 20 μm PCF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated phase-matching diagrams at an input pump power P=0 for bulk silica (red curve) and P=35kW for 20 μm core (green curve) and 12 μm core (blue curve) PCFs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental arrangement.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured conversion efficiency to the signal and idler wavelengths as a function of fiber length, for the 20 μm and 12 μm core PCFs, at an input pomp peak power of 35 kW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured conversion efficiency as a function of the pump input peak power for a 43 cm long 20 μm core PCF.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ωs+ωi=2ωp,
Δκ=ks+ki2kp+2γP=0,
D=DMaterial+DWaveguide.

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