Abstract

Diffractive arrays of silver nanocylinders are used to increase the radiative efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting at near-green wavelengths. Large enhancements in luminescence intensity (up to a factor of nearly 5) are measured when the array period exceeds the emission wavelength in the semiconductor material. The experimental results and related numerical simulations indicate that the underlying mechanism is a strong resonant coupling between the light-emitting excitons in the quantum wells and the plasmonic lattice resonances of the arrays. These excitations are particularly well suited to light-emission-efficiency enhancement, compared to localized surface plasmon resonances at similar wavelengths, due to their larger scattering efficiency and larger spatial extension across the sample area.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (2)

H. P. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Y. Liu, and N. Tansu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, Opt. Express 19, A991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Henson, E. Dimakis, J. DiMaria, R. Li, S. Minissale, L. Dal Negro, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Opt. Express 18, 21322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 82, 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. M. L. Leung, A. B. Djuriŝić, and E. H. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Abell, J.

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Auguié, B.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 82, 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 82, 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bendaña, X. M.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 82, 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

Bhattacharyya, A.

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carron, K. T.

Chen, C. Y.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chumanov, G.

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

Deutsch, B.

Dierolf, V.

Dimakis, E.

J. Henson, E. Dimakis, J. DiMaria, R. Li, S. Minissale, L. Dal Negro, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Opt. Express 18, 21322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DiMaria, J.

Djurisic, A. B.

M. M. L. Leung, A. B. Djuriŝić, and E. H. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fluhr, W.

García de Abajo, F. J.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 82, 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giannini, V.

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gómez Rivas, J.

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heckel, J. C.

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henson, J.

J. Henson, E. Dimakis, J. DiMaria, R. Li, S. Minissale, L. Dal Negro, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Opt. Express 18, 21322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H. W.

Leung, M. M. L.

M. M. L. Leung, A. B. Djuriŝić, and E. H. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. H.

M. M. L. Leung, A. B. Djuriŝić, and E. H. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Liu, G. Y.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, Opt. Express 19, A991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Y. Liu, and N. Tansu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Meier, M.

Minissale, S.

Moustakas, T. D.

J. Henson, E. Dimakis, J. DiMaria, R. Li, S. Minissale, L. Dal Negro, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Opt. Express 18, 21322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

J. Henson, E. Dimakis, J. DiMaria, R. Li, S. Minissale, L. Dal Negro, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Opt. Express 18, 21322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Schedin, F.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. P. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Y. Liu, and N. Tansu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, Opt. Express 19, A991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vecchi, G.

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

Yang, C. C.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, Opt. Express 19, A991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Y. Liu, and N. Tansu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. P.

H. P. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Y. Liu, and N. Tansu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, Opt. Express 19, A991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, Adv. Mater. 20, 1253 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 101103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Henson, J. C. Heckel, E. Dimakis, J. Abell, A. Bhattacharyya, G. Chumanov, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Y. Liu, and N. Tansu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. M. L. Leung, A. B. Djuriŝić, and E. H. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nanotechnology (1)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, Nanotechnology 19, 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, Nat. Mater. 3, 601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, and F. J. García de Abajo, Phys. Rev. B 82, 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

G. Vecchi, V. Giannini, and J. Gómez Rivas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of a Ag NC array. (b) PL spectra measured with arrays of different period P and NC diameter D=P40nm (solid curves), and from nearby uncoated regions of the same sample (dashed curves). (c) Same as (b) for P=220nm and D=110nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of the same array geometries of Fig. 1(b) fabricated on a GaN film grown on sapphire, normalized to the transmittance of the bare GaN/sapphire substrate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Average electric-field-intensity enhancement spectrum produced in the QWs by an NC array with P=220nm and D=180nm, under plane-wave illumination at normal incidence with linear polarization in the y direction. Insets: z and y components of the electric field at the wavelength of maximum enhancement, plotted versus position in the plane of the QWs within a unit cell of the array. The dashed circles show the NC outline. The z and y directions are indicated by the dot and arrow, respectively. (b) Same as (a) for an NC array with P=220nm and D=110nm.

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