Abstract

We report the first, to the best of our knowledge, experimental implementation of a spinning-disk configuration for high-speed compressive image acquisition. A single rotating mask (i.e., the spinning disk) with random binary patterns was utilized to spatially modulate a collimated terahertz (THz) or IR beam. After propagating through the sample, the THz or IR beam was measured using a single detector, and THz and IR images were subsequently reconstructed using compressive sensing. We demonstrate that a 32-by-32 pixel image could be obtained from 160 to 240 measurements in both the IR and THz ranges. This spinning-disk configuration allows the use of an electric motor to rotate the spinning disk, thus enabling the experiment to be performed automatically and continuously. This, together with its compact design and computational efficiency, makes it promising for real-time imaging applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. W. Yin, S. P. Morgan, J. Yang, and Y. Zhang, Rice University CAAM Technical Report TR10-01 (2010).
  14. L. Gan, in 15th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2007), pp. 403–406.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Haupt, W. U. Bajwa, G. Raz, and R. Nowak, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 5862 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

D. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. Q. Xiao, T. R. Corle, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bajwa, W. U.

J. Haupt, W. U. Bajwa, G. Raz, and R. Nowak, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 5862 (2010).

Baraniuk, R. G.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, A.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Candes, E.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corle, T. R.

G. Q. Xiao, T. R. Corle, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, M. A.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donoho, D.

D. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, M. F.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gan, L.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

L. Gan, in 15th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2007), pp. 403–406.

Gladden, L. F.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haupt, J.

J. Haupt, W. U. Bajwa, G. Raz, and R. Nowak, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 5862 (2010).

Heidari, A.

A. Heidari and D. Saeedkia, in 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2009), Vol. 1–2, pp. 694–695.

Huang, Y.

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Ke, J.

Kelly, K. F.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

G. Q. Xiao, T. R. Corle, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laska, J. N.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

W. Yin, S. P. Morgan, J. Yang, and Y. Zhang, Rice University CAAM Technical Report TR10-01 (2010).

Neifeld, M. A.

Newman, N.

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Nowak, R.

J. Haupt, W. U. Bajwa, G. Raz, and R. Nowak, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 5862 (2010).

Parrott, E. P. J.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raz, G.

J. Haupt, W. U. Bajwa, G. Raz, and R. Nowak, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 5862 (2010).

Romberg, J.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saeedkia, D.

A. Heidari and D. Saeedkia, in 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2009), Vol. 1–2, pp. 694–695.

Sebert, F.

F. Sebert, Y. M. Zou, and L. Ying, in Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology and Application and Biomedicine (IEEE, 2008), pp. 47–50.

Shen, H.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Smith, P. R.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stringer, M.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takhar, D.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, T.

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tayler, A. J.

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tych, K.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G. Q.

G. Q. Xiao, T. R. Corle, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

W. Yin, S. P. Morgan, J. Yang, and Y. Zhang, Rice University CAAM Technical Report TR10-01 (2010).

Yin, W.

W. Yin, S. P. Morgan, J. Yang, and Y. Zhang, Rice University CAAM Technical Report TR10-01 (2010).

Ying, L.

F. Sebert, Y. M. Zou, and L. Ying, in Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology and Application and Biomedicine (IEEE, 2008), pp. 47–50.

Zeitler, J. A.

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

W. Yin, S. P. Morgan, J. Yang, and Y. Zhang, Rice University CAAM Technical Report TR10-01 (2010).

Zhong, S. C.

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Zou, Y. M.

F. Sebert, Y. M. Zou, and L. Ying, in Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology and Application and Biomedicine (IEEE, 2008), pp. 47–50.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

W. L. Chan, H. T. Chen, A. J. Tayler, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett 94, 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xiao, T. R. Corle, and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (3)

D. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Candes, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Haupt, W. U. Bajwa, G. Raz, and R. Nowak, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 56, 5862 (2010).

Other (6)

F. Sebert, Y. M. Zou, and L. Ying, in Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology and Application and Biomedicine (IEEE, 2008), pp. 47–50.

H. Rauhut, in Theoretical Foundations and Numerical Methods for Sparse Recovery, Vol. 9 of Radon Series for Computational and Applied Mathematics, M. Fornasier, ed. (de Gruyter, 2010), pp. 1–92.

W. Yin, S. P. Morgan, J. Yang, and Y. Zhang, Rice University CAAM Technical Report TR10-01 (2010).

L. Gan, in 15th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2007), pp. 403–406.

A. Heidari and D. Saeedkia, in 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2009), Vol. 1–2, pp. 694–695.

H. Shen, N. Newman, L. Gan, S. C. Zhong, Y. Huang, and Y. C. Shen, in 35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–2.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3984 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a spinning-disk-based compressive imaging system. The square enclosed by the solid red line represents the “effective image window.” In our experiment, the spinning disk has a radius of R = 95 mm and the image window is placed l = 35 mm from the center of the disk. A hole of 0.5 mm diameter at the edge of the spinning disk is used for synchronizing the mask position and the measured signal. LED, light emitting diode; PD1, photodiode; DAQ, data acquisition (Media 1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Photographs of the samples used in IR imaging experiment, and their corresponding IR images reconstructed using (b) MMSE linear estimation and (c) the TV-min nonlinear reconstruction algorithm. Each image has 32 × 32 pixels and was reconstructed from 240 measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Photographs of the samples used in the THz imaging experiment, and their corresponding THz images reconstructed using (b) MMSE linear estimation and (c) the TV-min nonlinear reconstruction algorithm. Each image has 32 × 32 pixels and was reconstructed from 160 measurements.

Equations (1)

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y M × 1 = Φ M × N x N × 1 + n M × 1 ,

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