Abstract

This Letter presents the fabrication of optical fiber refractometers based on indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings deposited by sputtering with response in the visible region. ITO thin films have been sputtered by means of a rotating mechanism that enables the fabrication of smooth and homogeneous coatings onto the optical fiber core. The ITO coating acts as a resonance supporting layer. This permits us to couple light from the waveguide to the ITO-coating/external medium region at specific wavelength ranges. The device is sensitive to external medium refractive index, which allows its utilization as a refractometer. The sensitivity is dependent on the coating thickness, ranging from 523.21 to 1221nm/refractive index unit in the explored sensors. The sensor development process is time effective compared to other techniques such as dip coating or layer-by-layer self-assembly, which is interesting in terms of mass production.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, Opt. Express 14, 19 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2008 (1)

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, D. G. Lim, W. Song, and J. Yi, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, Anal. Chim. Acta 417, 125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, T.

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, Anal. Chim. Acta 417, 125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A. T.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atanasov, P. A.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernitzki, H.

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, S. H.

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

Contessa, L.

Cooper, P. R.

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

Del Villar, I.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dikovska, A. O.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Valdivielso, C.

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, S.

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Götzelmann, R.

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hernaez, M.

Hernáez, M.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hjortsberg, A.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hoa, X. D.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

Ikebukuro, K.

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, Anal. Chim. Acta 417, 125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karakoleva, E. I.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karube, I.

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, Anal. Chim. Acta 417, 125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauth, H.

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laux, S.

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, D. G. Lim, W. Song, and J. Yi, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. G.

J. Lee, D. G. Lim, W. Song, and J. Yi, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

Matías, I. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

Sambles, J. R.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, P.

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, Anal. Chim. Acta 417, 125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.

J. Lee, D. G. Lim, W. Song, and J. Yi, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tabrizian, M.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

J. Lee, D. G. Lim, W. Song, and J. Yi, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zafirova, B. S.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zamarreño, C. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zöller, A.

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

T. Akimoto, S. Sasaki, K. Ikebukuro, and I. Karube, Anal. Chim. Acta 417, 125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

S. H. Brewer and S. Franzen, J. Alloys Compd. 338, 73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

J. Lee, D. G. Lim, W. Song, and J. Yi, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1143 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. A 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Laux, N. Kaiser, A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Lauth, and H. Bernitzki, Thin Solid Films 335, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup with the light source, the detector, and the optical fiber with the coated region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM micrographs of the ITO coatings.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra obtained after immersing the sensitive region in solutions with different refractive index (RI) for different ITO layer thickness values. Theoretical results: (a) 55.2nm, (b) 112.3nm, and (c) 149.9nm. Experimental results: (d) 52.2nm, (e) 112.3nm, and (f) 149.9nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative wavelength shift with different RI for different ITO layer thickness values. (a) Theoretical results. (b) Experimental results.

Equations (1)

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ε(w)=εωp2ω2+iωτ+s0ω02ω02ω2+iγω,

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