Abstract

The performance of multiview three-dimensional imaging systems depends on several factors, including the number of sensors, sensor pixel size, relative sensor configuration, imaging optics, and computational reconstruction algorithm. Therefore, it is important to compare the performance of such systems under equally constrained resources. In this Letter, we develop a unifying framework to evaluate the lateral and axial resolution of N-ocular imaging systems ranging from stereo (two cameras) to multiple sensors (integral imaging) under fixed resource constraints. The proposed framework enables one to evaluate the system performance as a function of sensing parameters such as the number of cameras, the number of pixels, parallax, pixel size, lens aperture, and focal length. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on this framework to evaluate system performance as a function of sensing parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on quantitative analysis of N-ocular imaging systems under common resource constraints.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (1)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Y. Son and B. Javidi, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1968 (1)

1931 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, J. Phys. 7, 821 (1908).

Aggoun, A.

Arai, J.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

Davies, N.

Hirshfeld, A. W.

A. W. Hirshfeld, Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos (Freeman, 2001).

Hoshino, H.

Isono, H.

Ives, H. E.

Jang, J. S.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Son and B. Javidi, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 12, 5237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jang and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 28, 1924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 27, 324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kung, S. Y.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, J. Phys. 7, 821 (1908).

Manolache, S.

Martinez-Corral, M.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 12, 5237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

McCormick, M.

Mitani, K.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okui, M.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, G.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 12, 5237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. Y.

J. Y. Son and B. Javidi, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuyama, I.

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. Y. Son and B. Javidi, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. (1)

G. Lippmann, J. Phys. 7, 821 (1908).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (3)

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, Proc. IEEE 94, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 97, 1067 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Proc. IEEE 94, 591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. W. Hirshfeld, Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos (Freeman, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Stereo imaging (N=2). (b) Integral imaging with N cameras.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ray diagram for analysis of 3D resolution in N-ocular imaging. (a) Two point sources resolution model for depth resolution. (b) Ray projection for unresolvable depth ranges to calculate depth resolution. (c) Two point sources resolution model for lateral resolution. (d) Ray projection for unresolvable lateral ranges to calculate lateral resolution.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculation of depth resolution using two point sources using overlapping of unresolvable depth ranges from each sensor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation results for depth resolution.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation results for lateral resolution.

Equations (6)

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u1i=fz1(Pix1),
s1i=u1ic=fcz1(Pix1),
ziz2zi+,
Δz=min(zi+)max(zi).
xix2xi+,
Δx=min(xi+)max(xi).

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