Abstract

Photodegradation of melanin thin films is investigated for a UVA wavelength of 355 nm and a UVC wavelength of 244 nm. The technique involves interferometric exposure of melanin with two coherent beams from a low-power UV laser. The periodic photodegradation-grating pattern is monitored by diffraction of a second low-power He–Ne laser. Dependence of the photodegradation rate on UV intensity as well as the effect of ambient humidity is investigated and explained with a simple model. The technique has promise for investigating photo-induced effects in other biomolecular substrates as well.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, Opt. Lett. 30, 501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zhou, J. Shen, J. Yang, Y. Ke, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1370 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Shen, J. Yang, Y. Ke, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).

1978 (1)

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Angelos, S.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, B. K.

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bothma, J. P.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. M.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chedekel, M. R.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Corry, P.

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef]

de Boor, J.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Divakar, U.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dokhanian, M.

Geue, T.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hearing, V. J.

V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).

Henneberg, O.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M. M.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kassu, A.

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, Opt. Lett. 30, 501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ke, Y.

Kim, H. C.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korytowski, W.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).

Kreller, C. R.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kricker, A.

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V. Y.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leong, S. P. L.

V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).

McGinness, J.

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, P.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nofsinger, J. B.

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, U.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pokora, A.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Post, P. W.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, P.

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rees, J. L.

J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roanowska, M.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saphiannikova, M. G.

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarna, T.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).

Schwenn, P. E.

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seppa, H.

H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, Opt. Lett. 30, 501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

Simon, J. D.

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skumatz, C. M. B.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. K.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Taguenang, J. M.

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vessell, D. L.

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallraff, G.

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Weinert, E. F.

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Zarba, A.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zarba, M.

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zareba, M.

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, J.

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. P. Bothma, J. de Boor, U. Divakar, P. E. Schwenn, and P. Meredith, Adv. Mater. 20, 3539 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1)

J. L. Rees, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75, 739 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers (1)

J. B. Nofsinger, E. F. Weinert, and J. D. Simon, Biopolymers 67, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

T. Sarna, J. M. Burke, W. Korytowski, M. Roanowska, C. M. B. Skumatz, A. Zarba, and M. Zarba, Exp. Eye Res. 76, 89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

H. Seppa, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11, 759 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

W. Korytowski and T. Sarna, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 12410 (1990).

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

J. M. Taguenang, A. Kassu, and A. Sharma, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 303, 525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 63, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. C. Kim, G. Wallraff, C. R. Kreller, S. Angelos, V. Y. Lee, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, Nano Lett. 4, 1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

A. Sharma, Photochem. Photobiol. 86, 852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Burke, M. M. Henry, M. Zareba, and T. Sarna, Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 920 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. R. Chedekel, S. K. Smith, P. W. Post, A. Pokora, and D. L. Vessell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5395 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. McGinness, P. Corry, and P. Proctor, Science 183, 853 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. J. Hearing and S. P. L. Leong, From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy (Humana, 2006).

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