Abstract

A highly sensitive miniature photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor based on field mode excitation is presented. The sensor is fabricated by melting one end of a photonic crystal fiber into a rounded tip and splicing and collapsing the other end with a single-mode fiber. The rounded tip is able to induce cladding mode excitation, which resulted in an additional phase delay. Linear response of 262.28 nm/refractive index unit in the refractive index range of 1.337 to 1.395 is obtained for the physical length of a 953μm sensor. The sensor is also shown to be insensitive to environmental temperature.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

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[CrossRef]

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Y. J. Rao, M. Deng, D. W. Duan, and T. Zhu, Sensor Actuators. A Phys. 148, 33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Homola, Sensor Actuators. B Chem. 41, 207 (1997).
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Other

C. A. Bennett, Principles of Physical Optics (Wiley, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram for excitation mode mechanism of the sensor. (b) Experimental setup of the PCF sensor system. (c) Microscope image of the sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized reflection of the sensor with varying RI from 1.337 to 1.395 for l = 953 μm , before pass ing the spectra to the digital low pass filter. (b) Wavelength shift of reflection peaks with varying RI values and temperatures obtained after passing the spectra through the digital low pass filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection spectra of the sensors with different configurations: (a) in the absence of the first collapsed region, with and without the second collapsed region, (b) in the absence of the second collapsed region, with 1 and 50 mm long PCF, and (c) with a collapsed flat end.

Equations (1)

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R = [ E 1 ] 2 + [ E 2 ] 2 + 2 E 1 E 2 cos ( 2 π l Δ n / λ + ϕ ) ,

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