Abstract

We present an approach to laser scanning endomicroscopy that requires no moving parts and can be implemented with no distal scanners or optics, permitting extremely compact endoscopic probes to be developed. Our approach utilizes a spatial light modulator to correct for phase variations across a fiber imaging bundle and to encode for arbitrary wavefronts at the distal end of the fiber bundle. Thus, it is possible to realize both focusing and beam scanning at the output of the fiber bundle with no distal components. We present proof of principle results to illustrate three-dimensional scanning of the focal spot and exemplar images of a United States Air Force resolution test chart.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2272 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Helmchen, Exp. Physiol. 87, 737 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. F. Gmitro and D. Aziz, Opt. Lett. 18, 565 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Jean, G. Bourg-Heckly, and B. Viellerobe, Opt. Express 15, 4008 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 21, 764 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, Appl. Opt. 15, 611 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. E. Pearson, Appl. Opt. 15, 622 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. R. Bissonnette, Appl. Opt. 21, 3998 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, Opt. Lett. 35, 1245 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Cizmar, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 4, 388 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1849 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W.-H. Lee, in Progress in Optics (North-Holland, 1978), Vol. 16, pp. 121–232.
  17. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Cizmar, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 4, 388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, Opt. Lett. 35, 1245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2005

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2272 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. Helmchen, Exp. Physiol. 87, 737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

1993

1982

1976

Aegerter, C. M.

Anderson, E. P.

Aziz, D.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Boccara, A. C.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

Bourg-Heckly, G.

Bridges, W. B.

Cizmar, T.

T. Cizmar, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 4, 388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cocker, E. D.

Delaney, P.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

T. Cizmar, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 4, 388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dunsby, C.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elson, D. S.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fee, M. S.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flusberg, B. A.

French, P. M. W.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

Hansen, S.

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen, Exp. Physiol. 87, 737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ina, H.

Jean, F.

Jung, J. C.

Kennedy, G. T.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiesslich, R.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Kobayashi, S.

Lacombe, F.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-H.

W.-H. Lee, in Progress in Optics (North-Holland, 1978), Vol. 16, pp. 121–232.

Lerosey, G.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manning, H. B.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

T. Cizmar, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 4, 388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McLaren, W.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 23, 1849 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neurath, M.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussmeier, T. A.

Pearson, J. E.

Pedinoff, M. E.

Polglase, A.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

Skinner, S.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamp, G. W.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tank, D. W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vellekoop, I. M.

Viellerobe, B.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Jean, G. Bourg-Heckly, and B. Viellerobe, Opt. Express 15, 4008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Appl. Opt.

Exp. Physiol.

F. Helmchen, Exp. Physiol. 87, 737 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

A. Polglase, W. McLaren, S. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. Neurath, and P. Delaney, Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophoton.

G. T. Kennedy, H. B. Manning, D. S. Elson, M. A. A. Neil, G. W. Stamp, B. Viellerobe, F. Lacombe, C. Dunsby, and P. M. W. French, J. Biophoton. 3, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nat. Commun.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, doi:10.1038/ncomms1078 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

T. Cizmar, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, Nat. Photon. 4, 388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neuron

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

W.-H. Lee, in Progress in Optics (North-Holland, 1978), Vol. 16, pp. 121–232.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for measuring and correcting phase aberrations. LD, 840 nm laser diode; OC, optical chopper; BS 1 , BS 2 , 50 / 50 beam splitters; L 1 , L 4 , L 5 , microscope objectives ( 10 × , 60 × and 20 × , respectively); PBS, polarizing beam splitter; SLM, spatial light modulator; M, mirror; FB, fiber bundle; P, polarizer; CCD, camera; L 2 , L 3 , L 6 , L 7 , lenses ( f = 100 mm , 200 mm , 250 mm , and 250 mm , respectively). Arrow indicates where the object was inserted to record images. (b) Exemplar hologram for which the small groups of bright and dark fringes encode amplitude and phase for individual fiber cores. (c) Typical interference pattern showing two to three fringes per fiber core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity images of and corresponding line profiles through focal plane (a), (c) recorded without and (b), (d) recorded with phase correction applied. Scale bars are 10 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images illustrating 3-D scanning of the focal spot. (a)–(c) demonstrate x y scanning, while (d)–(f) show z scanning of the focus through a fixed observation plane. Scale bars are 20 μm in the upper row and 10 μm in the lower.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanned transmitted light images of USAF 1951 resolution test chart showing (a) group 6, element 3 imaged by recording the mean CCD pixel value; and (b) group 6, elements 2 and 3 and (c) group 7, elements 3–6 imaged by recording the maximum pixel value at each scan position. Scale bar is 10 μm .

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ = 2 π λ { f + f 2 ( x fiber x c ) 2 ( y fiber y c ) 2 } ,

Metrics