Abstract

A side-scattering technique for investigating the inner microstructure of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is reported. Multiple scattering is reduced by filling the hollow PCF channels with index-matching fluid. The scattered signal is measured for fixed angles of incidence and detection while the fiber is rotated. A pattern of peaks, unique to each PCF, whether solid or hollow core, correlates closely with the symmetry planes of the PCF structure. As an example of the technique, the twist profile of a structural rocking filter is directly measured.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

2008

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, Opt. Express 16, 17249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

1998

1994

1974

Aniano, J. B.

J. B. Aniano, “System for determining birefringent axes in polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” U.S. patent005317575A (May 31, 1994).

Anuszkiewicz, A.

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Birks, T. A.

Canning, J.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cooks, K.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Costa, G. D.

Couny, F.

Failache, H.

Farr, L.

Ferrari, J.

Frins, E.

Giessen, H.

Groothoff, N.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hansom, K.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holdsworth, J.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kang, M. S.

Knight, J. C.

Kolesik, M.

Laesggard, J.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezama, A.

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B. J.

Martelli, C.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Pohl, A.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

Russell, P. St. J.

Scharrer, M.

Sørenson, H. R.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, Opt. Commun. 270, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cooks, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, Laser Chem. 2008, 239417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

Warken, F.

Watkins, L. S.

Wojcik, J.

Wong, G. K. L.

Zang, L.

Zang, L. Y.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of setup. SMF, single mode fiber; CL, fiber collimator; P, polarizer; CYL, cylindrical lens; PD, photodetector. (b) Scattered signal of an HiBi PCF versus detection angle θ det for fixed fiber orientation. (Inset) scattering geometry. (c) Scattered signal versus fiber rotation angle θ ROT and θ det .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEMs and scattering patterns for (a)–(b) Solid-core PCF. (c)–(d) HiBi PCF. (e)–(f) Hollow-core kagomé PCF. (g) Simplified structure used in finite element calculation (commercial FEM solver from the JCMwave company). (h) Calculated scattering pattern for ( λ = 632 nm ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scattering pattern at different positions of the rocking filter fiber. Contour figure (linear scale) shows the scattering signal as a function of the fiber rotation angle as well as the position along the filter. Step size along the fiber is 50 μm , step size along the y axis is 0.2 ° . (b) Retrieved fiber rotation angle. The fiber twist angle is averaged out for all the peaks in the scattering pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and calculated transmission spectra of the rocking filter. The transfer-matrix calculation was based on the twist profile shown in Fig. 3b.

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