Abstract

A Raman laser based on a bulk silicon single crystal with 1.127μm emission wavelength is demonstrated. The Si crystal with 30mm length was placed into an external cavity and pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system. Strong defocusing of the pump and Raman laser beam by free carriers was compensated by an intracavity lens. Raman laser operation with a pulse duration of 2.5ns was identified by a Raman laser threshold significantly lower than the single-pass stimulated Raman-scattering threshold. Linear absorption losses of the 1.06415μm pump radiation are strongly reduced by cooling the Si crystal to a temperature of 10K.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 203, R38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, Opt. Mater. 11, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Chen and H. J. Eichler, Appl. Phys. B 45, 121 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

A. Penzkofer, A. Laubereau, and W. Kaiser, Prog. Quantum Electron. 6, 56 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Svantesson and N. G. Nilsson, J. Phys. C 12, 3837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Grassl and M. Maier, Opt. Commun. 30, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1846 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Grasiuk, Quantum Electron. 4, 269 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Austin, W. L.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, Opt. Mater. 11, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bludau, W.

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1846 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bohatý, L.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and H. J. Eichler, Appl. Phys. B 45, 121 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitropoulos, D.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and H. J. Eichler, Appl. Phys. B 45, 121 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasiuk, A. Z.

A. Z. Grasiuk, Quantum Electron. 4, 269 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. P.

H. P. Grassl and M. Maier, Opt. Commun. 30, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinke, W.

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1846 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 203, R38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, W.

A. Penzkofer, A. Laubereau, and W. Kaiser, Prog. Quantum Electron. 6, 56 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laubereau, A.

A. Penzkofer, A. Laubereau, and W. Kaiser, Prog. Quantum Electron. 6, 56 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. S.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, M.

H. P. Grassl and M. Maier, Opt. Commun. 30, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. T.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, Opt. Mater. 11, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, N. G.

K. G. Svantesson and N. G. Nilsson, J. Phys. C 12, 3837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Onton, A.

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1846 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penzkofer, A.

A. Penzkofer, A. Laubereau, and W. Kaiser, Prog. Quantum Electron. 6, 56 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, Opt. Mater. 11, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 203, R38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J. M.

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shori, R.

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 203, R38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stafsudd, O. M.

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 203, R38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svantesson, K. G.

K. G. Svantesson and N. G. Nilsson, J. Phys. C 12, 3837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Chen and H. J. Eichler, Appl. Phys. B 45, 121 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 38, 1352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1846 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

K. G. Svantesson and N. G. Nilsson, J. Phys. C 12, 3837 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohatý, P. Becker, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. P. Grassl and M. Maier, Opt. Commun. 30, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, Opt. Mater. 11, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. M. Ralston and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, Phys. Status Solidi A 203, R38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Penzkofer, A. Laubereau, and W. Kaiser, Prog. Quantum Electron. 6, 56 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Z. Grasiuk, Quantum Electron. 4, 269 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the bulk silicon Raman laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distribution of the Raman laser cavity output radiation (a) for strongly misaligned, (b) slightly misaligned, and (c) parallel mirrors (Raman laser operation).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First Stokes output pulse energy versus pump pulse energy for the Raman laser with silicon single crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal behavior of the pump (dashed curve) and Stokes radiation (solid curve) of the Si Raman laser far above threshold.

Equations (1)

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I thr = I 0 Exp ( G ) , G = g · I p · L = ! 25.

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