Abstract

We describe a Yb-fiber-based laser comb, with a focus on the relationship between the net-cavity dispersion and frequency noise on the comb. While tuning the net-cavity dispersion from anomalous to normal, we measure the relative intensity noise, offset frequency (fCEO) linewidth, and the resulting frequency noise spectrum on the fCEO. We find that the laser operating at zero net-cavity dispersion has many advantages, including an approximately 100× reduction in free-running fCEO linewidth and frequency noise power spectral density when compared to the normal-dispersion regime. At the zero-dispersion point, we demonstrate a phase-locked fCEO beat with low residual noise.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

2008

F. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, F. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Express 16, 7055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, and L. Fu, Opt. Express 16, 16423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2005

B. Washburn and N. Newbury, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

H. Telle, B. Liphardt, and J. Stenger, Appl. Phys. B 74, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. Namiki and H. Haus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. Sugg and B. Schlarb, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 182, K91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1986

Adler, F.

Benkler, E.

Chong, A.

F. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cossel, K.

Cundiff, S.

K. Holman, R. Jones, A. Marian, S. Cundiff, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 28, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S.

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Johnson and S. Diddams, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CPDB11.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, and L. Fu, Opt. Express 16, 16423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Fermann, M.

F. Adler, K. Cossel, M. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 34, 1330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fermann and I. Hartl, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Fu, L.

L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, and L. Fu, Opt. Express 16, 16423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Gaarde, M.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garmund, M.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

M. Fermann and I. Hartl, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, K. Cossel, M. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 34, 1330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

N. Kuse and Y. Kobayashi, The University of Tokyo Institute for Solid State Physics, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan; I. Hartl, IMRA America, 1044 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA (personal communication, 2010).

Haus, H.

S. Namiki and H. Haus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and H. Haus, Opt. Lett. 11, 665 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holman, K.

Hostetter, J.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jesperen, K.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T.

T. Johnson and S. Diddams, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CPDB11.

Jones, D.

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

Jung, K.

Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, arXiv:1102.1046v1 (2011).

Kartner, F.

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Kim, J.

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, arXiv:1102.1046v1 (2011).

Knox, W. H.

Kobayashi, Y.

X. Zhou, F. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Express 16, 7055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kuse and Y. Kobayashi, The University of Tokyo Institute for Solid State Physics, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan; I. Hartl, IMRA America, 1044 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA (personal communication, 2010).

Kracht, D.

Kuse, N.

N. Kuse and Y. Kobayashi, The University of Tokyo Institute for Solid State Physics, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan; I. Hartl, IMRA America, 1044 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA (personal communication, 2010).

Liphardt, B.

H. Telle, B. Liphardt, and J. Stenger, Appl. Phys. B 74, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marian, A.

Martin, M.

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C.

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki and H. Haus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, J.

Newbury, N.

N. Newbury and B. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Washburn and N. Newbury, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palsdottir, B.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Prochnow, O.

Ramachandran, S.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J.

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renninger, W.

F. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, B.

U. Sugg and B. Schlarb, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 182, K91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, arXiv:1102.1046v1 (2011).

Stenger, J.

H. Telle, B. Liphardt, and J. Stenger, Appl. Phys. B 74, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugg, U.

U. Sugg and B. Schlarb, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 182, K91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swann, B.

Tate, J.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H.

H. Telle, B. Liphardt, and J. Stenger, Appl. Phys. B 74, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, B.

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

Thomas, B. K.

Thorpe, M.

Torizuka, K.

Wandt, D.

Washburn, B.

B. Washburn and N. Newbury, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R.

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F.

F. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

F. Adler, K. Cossel, M. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 34, 1330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Holman, R. Jones, A. Marian, S. Cundiff, and J. Ye, Opt. Lett. 28, 851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshitomi, F.

Yost, D.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Appl. Phys. B

H. Telle, B. Liphardt, and J. Stenger, Appl. Phys. B 74, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Namiki and H. Haus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Washburn and N. Newbury, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Fermann and I. Hartl, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Photon. Rev.

F. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 58 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

T. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. Yost, M. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. Fermann, and J. Ye, Nat. Photon. 2, 355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. Yost, T. Schibli, J. Ye, J. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. Gaarde, and K. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi (b)

U. Sugg and B. Schlarb, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 182, K91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. Grüner-Nielsen, S. Ramachandran, K. Jesperen, S. Ghalmi, M. Garmund, and B. Palsdottir, Proc. SPIE 6873, 68730Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Jones, S. Diddams, J. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. Windeler, J. Hall, and S. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Kuse and Y. Kobayashi, The University of Tokyo Institute for Solid State Physics, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan; I. Hartl, IMRA America, 1044 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA (personal communication, 2010).

Y. Song, K. Jung, and J. Kim, arXiv:1102.1046v1 (2011).

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, L. Fu, B. Thomas, L. Dong, M. Fermann, J. Kim, F. Kartner, and C. Menyuk, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuC4.
[PubMed]

T. Johnson and S. Diddams, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CPDB11.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of Yb-fiber oscillator: WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M1–M3, silver mirrors (M2 is a half mirror). Inset, optical spectra at four distinct dispersion regimes in the cavity ( + n = more normal, n = normal , z = zero , a = anomalous ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental measurement of the laser cavity GDD (circles) and calculation of dispersion as a sum of all the cavity elements (solid lines).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum of free-running f CEO beat at normal- and zero-dispersion points with Lorentzian fits. Inset, locked f CEO beat. (b) Collection of f CEO linewidths versus net-cavity dispersion (measured by grating separation): dotted curve, minimum linewidth obtained and dashed curve, average value.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Frequency noise on two sample f CEO beat signals (division factor included to give true f CEO noise). (b) Amplitude noise (RIN) for four dispersion regimes.

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