Abstract

We investigate multiple-soliton pattern formations in a figure-of-eight passively mode-locked fiber laser. Operation in the anomalous dispersion regime with a double-clad fiber amplifier allows generation of up to several hundreds of solitons per round trip. We report the observation of remarkable soliton distributions: soliton gas, soliton liquid, soliton polycrystal, and soliton crystal, thus indicating the universality of such complexes.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Guy, D. U. Noske, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 18, 1447 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 27, 1321 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Soto-Crespo and Ph. Grelu, Lect. Notes Phys. 661, 207 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6020 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 524 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. A. Malomed, A. Schwache, and F. Mitschke, Fib. Int. Opt. 17, 267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. E 72, 025604(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 2254 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2005 (3)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. E 72, 025604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo and Ph. Grelu, Lect. Notes Phys. 661, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. A. Malomed, A. Schwache, and F. Mitschke, Fib. Int. Opt. 17, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

B. A. Malomed, Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afanasjev, V. V.

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amrani, F.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belhache, F.

Chouli, S.

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, P. D.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, Ph.

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo and Ph. Grelu, Lect. Notes Phys. 661, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gutty, F.

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guy, M. J.

Haboucha, A.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 2254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 524 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huot, N.

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Komarov, A.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 2254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 524 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. E 72, 025604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, H.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 524 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. E 72, 025604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

B. A. Malomed, A. Schwache, and F. Mitschke, Fib. Int. Opt. 17, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Millot, G.

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F.

B. A. Malomed, A. Schwache, and F. Mitschke, Fib. Int. Opt. 17, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noske, D. U.

Salhi, M.

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 524 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, F.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 2254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 33, 524 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. E 72, 025604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwache, A.

B. A. Malomed, A. Schwache, and F. Mitschke, Fib. Int. Opt. 17, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seong, N. H.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo and Ph. Grelu, Lect. Notes Phys. 661, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Opt. Lett. 27, 966 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Vienne, G.

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Appl. Phys. B 99, 107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Gutty, Ph. Grelu, N. Huot, G. Vienne, and G. Millot, Electron. Lett. 37, 745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fib. Int. Opt. (1)

B. A. Malomed, A. Schwache, and F. Mitschke, Fib. Int. Opt. 17, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lect. Notes Phys. (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo and Ph. Grelu, Lect. Notes Phys. 661, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Commun. 283, 5224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053809 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, Phys. Rev. A 44, 6954 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chouli and Ph. Grelu, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, Phys. Rev. E 72, 025604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, Phys. Rev. E 56, 6020 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. DCF, double-clad fiber; DSF, dispersion-shifted fiber; ISO, optical isolator; PC, polarization controller; NALM, nonlinear amplifying loop mirror; UR, unidirectional ring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal trace and (b) autocorrelation trace of a soliton liquid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal trace of a soliton polycrystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical spectrum and (b) autocorrelation trace of a soliton polycrystal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal trace of a soliton crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical spectrum and (b) autocorrelation trace of a soliton crystal.

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