Abstract

We introduce and experimentally demonstrate acousto-optic-assisted diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using a holography-based acousto-optic setup. The method is based on probing a scattering medium with a localized acoustical modulation of the phase of the scattered light. The optical properties of the scattering medium are recovered with ultrasound-limited resolution by applying DOT reconstruction methods on a set of the measured intensities of light, modulated at different locations throughout the medium.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (2)

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Xu and L.-H. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

L.-H. V. Wang, Dis. Mark. 19, 123 (2004).

1995 (2)

W. Leutz and G. Maret, Phys. B 204, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiroaka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiroaka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atlan, M.

Boccara, A. C.

Bratchenia, A.

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. C.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiroaka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eames, M. E.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forget, B. C.

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gockenbach, M. S.

M. S. Gockenbach, Understanding and Implementing the Finite Element Method (SIAM, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiroaka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiroaka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leutz, W.

W. Leutz and G. Maret, Phys. B 204, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

W. Leutz and G. Maret, Phys. B 204, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molenaar, R.

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaz, F.

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiroaka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, “Application of the finite element method in infrared image reconstruction of scattering media,” Ph.D. thesis (University of London, 1994).

Srinivasan, S.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-H. V.

M. Xu and L.-H. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. V. Wang, Dis. Mark. 19, 123 (2004).

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L.-H. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. (1)

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Commun. Numer. Meth. Eng. 25, 711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dis. Mark. (1)

L.-H. V. Wang, Dis. Mark. 19, 123 (2004).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Bratchenia, R. Molenaar, T. G. van Leeuwen, and R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (2)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiroaka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Yalavarthy, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, Med. Phys. 34, 2085 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. B (1)

W. Leutz and G. Maret, Phys. B 204, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Xu and L.-H. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101(2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. S. Gockenbach, Understanding and Implementing the Finite Element Method (SIAM, 2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, “Application of the finite element method in infrared image reconstruction of scattering media,” Ph.D. thesis (University of London, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of the sensitivity functions (Jacobians, log scale) used in the reconstruction procedure. AC, DC denote the modulated and nonmodulated photon density, respectively. The reduced scattering coefficient of the medium ( μ s ) is 1.95 mm 1 , and the disk diameter is 20 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of recovered absorption images (color scale, in mm 1 ) using the Levenberg–Marquardt reconstruction algorithm ([10]) for a numerical simulation of (a) AO-assisted DOT, (b) DOT. The number of iterations is 25; light sources\detectors, 16; US-probed positions for AODOT, 5 per angle scan. Preset sizes of the absorbers are 1.5 and 1 mm . Preset μ a are 0.04 and 0.08 mm 1 , respectively. The μ s of the surrounding medium is 1.95 mm 1 . Large black circles around the image center show the original locations of the absorbers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AODOT setup: FG, two-channel function generator (Tektronix AFG3102); D, delay line; P, MOSFET pulser to drive transducer; UST, 5 MHz US transducer (Panametrics V309); L, cw Ti:sapphire laser ( 600 mW at λ = 750 nm ), M1–M3, AO modulators (Neos 23080-2); A1, aperture to block nondeflected light; A2, aperture ( H × W = 10 mm × 20 mm ); B, IL-based phantom; CCD, camera Basler A102f ( 12   bits , 1392 × 1040 ); BS, beam splitter; MR, mirrors; RS, rotational stage; SS, scanning stage. In the center of the phantom, the cross section of an absorber- containing tube is depicted. The US propagation is along the Z direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Top view of the image of the phantom ( 20 mm in diameter), cut at Z 4 mm in the X Y plane. Absorbing objects (inserts) are 1.5 mm in diameter. (b) Surface plot for the slice along the X Y plane at height of 4.4 mm . Color scale depicts μ a in mm 1 . (c) 3D reconstructed map of the isosurface. The shadows were added afterward, solely for illustration purposes.

Equations (2)

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· D ( r ) ϕ ( r ) μ a ( r ) ϕ ( r ) = S ( r ) ,
· D ( r ) ϕ m ( r ) μ a ( r ) ϕ m ( r ) = η ( r ) ϕ ( r ) ,

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