Abstract

In order to promote a polymer LED (PLED), we fabricated and introduced an ultrathin nickel oxide (NiO) buffer layer (<10nm) between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole injection layer in the PLED. The NiO buffer layer was easily formed on the ITO anode by electron-beam deposition of a nickel (Ni) metal source and an oxygen plasma treatment process. As a result, the PLED device with the NiO buffer layer on its ITO anode had the same turn-on voltage as conventional PLED devices without the NiO buffer layer, and the luminance of the PLED device with the NiO buffer layer was doubled, compared with the conventional PLED devices without the NiO buffer layer. Improvement of the optoelectronic performance of the PLED can be attributed to the increase of the current driven into the diode, resulting from the NiO buffer layer, which can enhance the hole injection and balance the injection of the two types of carriers (holes and electrons). Thus it is an excellent choice to introduce the NiO buffer layer onto the ITO anode of the PLED devices in order to enhance the optoelectronic performance of PLED devices.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Meyer, R. Khalandovsky, P. Görrn, and A. Kahn, Adv. Mater. 23, 70 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. G. Helander, Z.-B. Wang, and M. T. Greiner, Adv. Mater. 22, 2037 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, Org. Electron. 10, 1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L.-T. Hou, P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Li, and C.-H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 517, 4926 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-F. Guo, T.-C. Wen, Y.-S. Huang, M.-W. Lin, C.-C. Tsou, and C.-T. Chung, Opt. Express 17, 21205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002

I.-M. Chan and T.-Y. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1899(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, B.

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bull, S.

C.-J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, Org. Electron. 10, 1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, I.-M.

I.-M. Chan and T.-Y. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1899(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-T.

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.-Z.

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-L.

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-T.

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C.-J.

C.-J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, Org. Electron. 10, 1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G.

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choo, D. C.

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C.-T.

Daik, R.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feast, W. J.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garrya, G.

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Görrn, P.

J. Meyer, R. Khalandovsky, P. Görrn, and A. Kahn, Adv. Mater. 23, 70 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, M. T.

M. G. Helander, Z.-B. Wang, and M. T. Greiner, Adv. Mater. 22, 2037 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, T.-F.

Hains, A. W.

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helander, M. G.

M. G. Helander, Z.-B. Wang, and M. T. Greiner, Adv. Mater. 22, 2037 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C.-L.

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.-P.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.-T.

L.-T. Hou, P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Li, and C.-H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 517, 4926 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T.-Y.

I.-M. Chan and T.-Y. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1899(2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-S.

Im, H. C.

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, M. D.

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-N.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y.-S.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, A.

J. Meyer, R. Khalandovsky, P. Görrn, and A. Kahn, Adv. Mater. 23, 70 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khalandovsky, R.

J. Meyer, R. Khalandovsky, P. Görrn, and A. Kahn, Adv. Mater. 23, 70 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-N.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-Y.

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-H.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-W.

L.-T. Hou, P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Li, and C.-H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 517, 4926 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.-W.

Liu, P.-Y.

L.-T. Hou, P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Li, and C.-H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 517, 4926 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyu, H.

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

J. Meyer, R. Khalandovsky, P. Görrn, and A. Kahn, Adv. Mater. 23, 70 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monkman, A.

C.-J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, Org. Electron. 10, 1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moscaa, M.

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Q.-L.

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, J.

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pei, J.

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.-B.

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serveta, B.

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, B.-C.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, H.

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, C.-C.

Vergnollea, M.

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.-B.

M. G. Helander, Z.-B. Wang, and M. T. Greiner, Adv. Mater. 22, 2037 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, T.-C.

Winscom, C.

C.-J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, Org. Electron. 10, 1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.-Y.

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S.

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-H.

L.-T. Hou, P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Li, and C.-H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 517, 4926 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, D.-Q.

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.-H.

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. G. Helander, Z.-B. Wang, and M. T. Greiner, Adv. Mater. 22, 2037 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J.-B. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Meyer, R. Khalandovsky, P. Görrn, and A. Kahn, Adv. Mater. 23, 70 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q.-L. Niu, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, J.-B. Peng, J. Wang, J. Pei, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 20, 964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. M. Brown, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, F. Cacialli, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1679 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I.-M. Chan and T.-Y. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1899(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Wang, C.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and Y.-L. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

L.-Y. Yang, X.-Z. Chen, H. Xu, D.-Q. Ye, and H. Tian, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ind. Eng. Chem.

S. Woo, J.-H. Kim, G. Cho, K. Kim, H. Lyu, and Y. Kim, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15, 716 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, Nature 347, 539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Org. Electron.

J.-H. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, J.-N. Jang, D.-H. Kim, B.-C. Song, D.-H. Lee, S.-N. Kwon, and M.-P. Hong, Org. Electron. 12, 285 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, Org. Electron. 10, 1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. D. Irwin, B. Buchholz, A. W. Hains, R. P. H. Chang, and T. J. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

J. Olivier, B. Serveta, M. Vergnollea, M. Moscaa, and G. Garrya, Synth. Met. 122, 87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

H. C. Im, D. C. Choo, T. W. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. H. Seo, and Y. Kim, Thin Solid Films 515, 5099 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-T. Hou, P.-Y. Liu, Y.-W. Li, and C.-H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 517, 4926 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy band configuration of the designed PLED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure diagram of the designed PLED.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmittance for a bare ITO layer and an ITO/NiO.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

J-V characteristics of the PLED device with the NiO layer and of the control device without the NiO layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

L-J characteristics of the PLED device with the NiO layer and of the control device without the NiO layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

J-V characteristics of the only hole transport device.

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