Abstract

A magneto-optic modulator with a magnetic fluid film inserted into an optical fiber Sagnac interferometer is proposed. The magnetic fluid exhibits variable birefringence and Faraday effect under external magnetic field that will lead to a phase difference and polarization state rotation in the Sagnac interferometer. As a result, the intensity of the output light is modulated under the external magnetic field. Moreover, the modulator has a high extinction ratio and can easily be integrated in a single-mode fiber system. The performance of the modulator is not affected by ambient temperature variation from room temperature to 40°C.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. C. Scholten, IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 221 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, Sens. Actuators. A Phys. 123, 438 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Horng, C. Hong, W. Yeung, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 37, 2674 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Fraza˜o, J. Baptista, and J. Santos, Sensors 7, 2970(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Rosenweig and R. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics (Dover, 1998).
  16. N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2009

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

O. Fraza˜o, J. Baptista, and J. Santos, Sensors 7, 2970(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

1990

N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980

P. C. Scholten, IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abualjarayesh, I.

N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abusafia, H.

N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J.

O. Fraza˜o, J. Baptista, and J. Santos, Sensors 7, 2970(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cecelja, F.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, Sens. Actuators. A Phys. 123, 438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, C.

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. S.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J.

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, K.

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, K. L.

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fraza˜o, O.

O. Fraza˜o, J. Baptista, and J. Santos, Sensors 7, 2970(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Hong, W. Yeung, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 37, 2674 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H.

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Hong, W. Yeung, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 37, 2674 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, S.

N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, L.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, Sens. Actuators. A Phys. 123, 438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pu, S. L.

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakowski, R.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, Sens. Actuators. A Phys. 123, 438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosensweig, R.

R. Rosenweig and R. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics (Dover, 1998).

Rosenweig, R.

R. Rosenweig and R. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics (Dover, 1998).

Santos, J.

O. Fraza˜o, J. Baptista, and J. Santos, Sensors 7, 2970(2007).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, P. C.

P. C. Scholten, IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tse, W.

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Hong, W. Yeung, and H. Yang, Appl. Opt. 37, 2674 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Opt. Lett. 30, 543 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, W.

Yusuf, N. A.

N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, S. Lee, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, C. Chen, K. Fang, S. Yang, J. Chieh, C. Hong, and H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Di, X. F. Chen, S. L. Pu, X. Hu, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn.

P. C. Scholten, IEEE Trans. Magn. 16, 221 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Yusuf, H. Abusafia, I. Abualjarayesh, and S. Mahmood, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 85, 85 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanopart. Res.

J. Chieh, C. Hong, S. Yang, H. Horng, and H. Yang, J. Nanopart. Res. 12, 293 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators. A Phys.

L. Martinez, F. Cecelja, and R. Rakowski, Sens. Actuators. A Phys. 123, 438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

O. Fraza˜o, J. Baptista, and J. Santos, Sensors 7, 2970(2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Rosenweig and R. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics (Dover, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of optical fiber modulator based on OFSI. (1), (2) collimator; (3) magnetic fluid film; (4) electromagnet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission spectra of the magneto-optic modulator under different magnetic field strengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output intensity of the modulator versus the external magnetic field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of light intensity modulation by (a) square wave and (b) sinusoidal wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmission spectra under different temperatures. Inset: Transmission spectra remain unchanged from 24 ° C to 40 ° C .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = [ sin ( B L / λ ) cos ( θ 1 + θ 2 ) ] 2 .
S = λ 2 / B L .

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