Abstract

We report on the optical properties of active silicon (Si)-rich Si3N4 microdisk cavities in the visible range. We have studied the correlation between the quality (Q) factor of the cavities and the active material deposition parameters. Microphotoluminescence measurements revealed subangstrom whispering galley modes resonances and a maximum Q of 104 around 760nm. These values improve significantly the best results reported so far for Si-based light-emitting circular resonators in the visible range. In contrast to what is reported for Si-rich SiO2-based microcavities, we demonstrate the absence of a spectral widening at high pump fluxes associated to carrier absorption mechanisms, which allows high emitted power without degrading the Q of the cavity. These results open the route toward the monolithic integration of those structures into more complex circuits including Si photodetectors.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. Nat. Photon. 4, 491 (2010).
  2. L.Pavesi, S.Gaponenko, and L.DalNegro, eds. Towards the First Silicon Laser, NATO Science Series (Kluwer, 2003), Vol.  93.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Biancucci, X. Wang, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, Opt. Express 18, 8466 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. D. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Chang, S. C. Eom, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, Opt. Express 17, 22918 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Qrad, Qssc, and Qsa contributions to the total Q (related to the radiation absorption and volume scattering losses, respectively) should be independent of the Si excess for the same μ-disk radius. The low top surface roughness measured by AFM measurements and the high Qrad extracted from finite-difference time-domain simulations (Qrad>106 for R>5 μm) allows us to disregard their contribution.
  12. D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. 4, 491 (2010).

P. Biancucci, X. Wang, J. G. C. Veinot, and A. Meldrum, Opt. Express 18, 8466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (6)

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biancucci, P.

Brongersma, M.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J. S.

Chang, J.-S.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. F.

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eom, S. C.

Fauchet, P.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghulinyan, M.

Gösele, U.

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R. D.

R. D. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-Y.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lui, A.

Meldrum, A.

Michel, J.

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milenin, A. P.

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pitanti, A.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucker, G.

M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, A. Lui, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Opt. Express 16, 13218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, R.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rylyakov, A. V.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneck, J.

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

J. S. Chang, S. C. Eom, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, Opt. Express 17, 22918 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Suh, K.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sukhovatkin, V.

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sung, G. Y.

Veinot, J. G. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Warga, J.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.-S.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H. G.

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.-J.

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, L.

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R.-J. Zhang, S.-Y. Seo, A. P. Milenin, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Negro, J. H. Yi, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. F. Chang, V. Sukhovatkin, and E. H. Sargent, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Warga, R. Li, S. Basu, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. Schneck, J. Warga, L. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

Nat. Photon. 4, 491 (2010).

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. H. Shin, M.-S. Yang, J.-S. Chang, S.-Y. Lee, K. Suh, H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, and P. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6897, 68970N(2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Qrad, Qssc, and Qsa contributions to the total Q (related to the radiation absorption and volume scattering losses, respectively) should be independent of the Si excess for the same μ-disk radius. The low top surface roughness measured by AFM measurements and the high Qrad extracted from finite-difference time-domain simulations (Qrad>106 for R>5 μm) allows us to disregard their contribution.

L.Pavesi, S.Gaponenko, and L.DalNegro, eds. Towards the First Silicon Laser, NATO Science Series (Kluwer, 2003), Vol.  93.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TR-polarized μ-PL emission spectrum of a μ-disk of sample 4 ( R = 4.5 μm ). (b) SEM image of the corresponding μ-disk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Behavior of Q (black squares) around 760 nm as function of the Si excess for R = 7.5 μm . Propagation losses at 780 nm are also reported (red circles). (b) TR-polarized μ-PL spectrum corresponding to disks with R = 7.5 μm of samples 1 (gray) and 4 (black). (c) Resonance present at 756.87 nm for sample 4 together with the corresponding Lorentzian fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) μ-PL spectra of a resonance at 794 nm for a 10 μm disk in sample 4 at low (squared points) and high (triangular points) power densities. (b) Q as a function of the pump power density.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sample Parameters: Implantation Doses, Nominal Si Contents, and Associated Si Excess Values a

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