Abstract

This study demonstrates a tunable Fresnel lens in an azo-dye-doped liquid crystal (ADDLC) film using an interference technique. One Fresnel-patterned green beam using a Sagnac interferometer irradiated the UV-illuminated ADDLC cell, yielding a concentric zone plate distribution with homeotropic and isotropic structures in bright and dark regions of the green interference pattern. The proposed Fresnel lens is polarization independent, focus tunable, and the focusing efficiency of the device can be optically controlled.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

2009 (1)

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. C. Lo, J. D. Wang, C. R. Lee, and T. S. Mo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, Opt. Express 15, 2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Sato, Opt. Rev. 6, 471 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. J.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, M.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ayras, P.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. H.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

Fujisawa, T.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haddock, J. N.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, L.

Honkanen, S.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horng, J.-S.

Hrozhyk, U.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

Hwang, S.-J.

Ikeda, T.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

Jeng, S.-C.

Kanazawa, A.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

Kippelen, B.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitaura, N.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. R.

K. C. Lo, J. D. Wang, C. R. Lee, and T. S. Mo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-R.

Lin, L.-C.

Lin, T.-H.

Lo, K. C.

K. C. Lo, J. D. Wang, C. R. Lee, and T. S. Mo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malalahalli, G.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T. S.

K. C. Lo, J. D. Wang, C. R. Lee, and T. S. Mo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mohajerani, E.

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moheghi, A.

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nataj, N. H.

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nemati, H.

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, S.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rad, M. B.

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, Opt. Rev. 6, 471 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serak, S. V.

Shiono, T.

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, D. M.

Tabiryan, N.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N. V.

Valley, P.

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. D.

K. C. Lo, J. D. Wang, C. R. Lee, and T. S. Mo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lo, J. D. Wang, C. R. Lee, and T. S. Mo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

H. K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, Chem. Mater. 10, 1402 (1998).
[CrossRef]

EPL (1)

H. Nemati, E. Mohajerani, A. Moheghi, M. B. Rad, and N. H. Nataj, EPL 87, 64001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Chung, S. W. Choi, Y. J. Kim, H. J. Ahn, and H. K. Baik, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. Peyghambarian, G. Li, D. Mathine, P. Valley, J. Schwiegerling, S. Honkanen, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, G. Malalahalli, and B. Kippelen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 157 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

S. Sato, Opt. Rev. 6, 471 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic experimental setup for forming the Fresnel pattern in an ADDLC cell and analyzing the focusing properties. BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; L, lens (focal length 20 cm ); DM, dichroic mirror, which reflects green light and transmits red light; λ / 4 WP, quarter-wave plate for 633 nm ; P, polarizer; A, analyzer; F, filter, which absorbs green light and transmits red light. The inset presents the chemical structure of 4MAB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Interference pattern created by the Sagnac interferometer showing the Fresnel zone structure. (b) Intensity profile of the interference pattern along the horizontal line passing through the center of the rings at the position zero.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of a 15   wt.   % 4MAB-doped E7 cell in the dark (red curve), in the irradiation of the UV light for 10 min (blue curve), and in the irradiation of the UV light and the green beam with intensity of 43.9 mW / cm 2 for 10 min (green curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optically controllable focusing properties of the ADDLC Fresnel lens. The probe beam image on the focal plane (a) before and (b) after irradiation of the green Fresnel pattern. (c) Beam intensity profiles on the focal plane at different average intensities of the green Fresnel pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Focusing efficiency of the ADDLC Fresnel lens as a function of the average intensity of the green Fresnel pattern with various linear polarizations at angles of 0 ° , 15 ° , 30 ° , 45 ° , and 90 ° with respect to the horizon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Focal length as a function of the square central ring radius of the Fresnel pattern.

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