Abstract

A phase-contrast volume holographic imaging system for three-dimensional contrast enhancement is presented. The system utilizes a spatial filter placed on a conjugate plane to the volume holographic pupil to simultaneously enhance weak phase information at different depths within an object. The proposed system was validated with experimental image data obtained in mouse colon samples and quantitative measurements of modulation transfer function as well.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (1)

P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, Y. Luo, J. M. Watson, R. K. Kostuk, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and J. M. Castro, Opt. Eng. 49, 043001 (2010).

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1986 (1)

G. S. Settles, AIAA J. 24, 1313 (1986).

1955 (1)

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).

Balberg, M.

Barbastathis, G.

Barton, J. K.

Brady, D. J.

Castro, J. M.

P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, Y. Luo, J. M. Watson, R. K. Kostuk, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and J. M. Castro, Opt. Eng. 49, 043001 (2010).

Chen, W.

Coufal, H.

H. Coufal, L. Hesselink, and D. Psaltis, Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Ellis, G. W.

G. W. Ellis, in Cell Reproduction, E.Dirksen, D.M.Prescott, and C.E.Fox, eds. (Academic, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Gelsinger, P. J.

Gelsinger-Austin, P. J.

P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, Y. Luo, J. M. Watson, R. K. Kostuk, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and J. M. Castro, Opt. Eng. 49, 043001 (2010).

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed.(Roberts & Company, 2005).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

H. Coufal, L. Hesselink, and D. Psaltis, Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Hsu, K. Y.

Kostuk, R. K.

Lin, S. H.

Liu, W.

Luo, Y.

Maeda, W. K.

W. K. Maeda, “Edge-illuminated gratings in PQ-doped PMMA for OCDMA applications” (Thesis, The University of Arizona, Electrical and Computing Engineering Department, 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

Sato, A.

Settles, G. S.

G. S. Settles, AIAA J. 24, 1313 (1986).

G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques: Visualizing Phenomena in Transparent Media(Springer-Verlag, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, A.

Solomatine, I.

Steckman, G. J.

Sun, W.

Watson, J. M.

P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, Y. Luo, J. M. Watson, R. K. Kostuk, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and J. M. Castro, Opt. Eng. 49, 043001 (2010).

Whang, W. T.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).

Zhou, G.

AIAA J. (1)

G. S. Settles, AIAA J. 24, 1313 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, Y. Luo, J. M. Watson, R. K. Kostuk, G. Barbastathis, J. K. Barton, and J. M. Castro, Opt. Eng. 49, 043001 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (8)

Science (1)

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).

Other (6)

G. S. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques: Visualizing Phenomena in Transparent Media(Springer-Verlag, 2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed.(Roberts & Company, 2005).

H. Coufal, L. Hesselink, and D. Psaltis, Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Ellis, in Cell Reproduction, E.Dirksen, D.M.Prescott, and C.E.Fox, eds. (Academic, 1978).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Maeda, “Edge-illuminated gratings in PQ-doped PMMA for OCDMA applications” (Thesis, The University of Arizona, Electrical and Computing Engineering Department, 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for recording multiplexed holographic gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging experimental arrangement of the PC-VHIS incorporating a volume hologram with two multiplexed gratings and a spatial filter of a knife edge placed on the conjugate plane of the hologram pupil.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images at two depths within a mouse colon sample obtained simultaneously (i.e., from a single camera frame and without any form of scanning) with a conventional VHIS, i.e., without a knife edge at the conjugated hologram pupil. One depth on the right is close the colon surface, and the other on the left is at the depth of ~ 50 μm below the surface. Left-hand side inset, two zoomed-in sections of the image; right-hand side inset, contrast ratio of different features along the vertical line. V VHIS , i represents the local contrast ratio at the i-th selected point with the conventional VHIS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images at two depths within the same mouse colon of Fig. 3, again obtained simultaneously from a single camera frame and without scanning, but this time using the PC-VHIS that includes the knife edge at the conjugated hologram pupil. V PC - VHIS , i represents the local contrast ratio at the i-th selected point with the PC-VHIS. Left-hand side inset, two zoomed-in sections of the image; right-hand side inset, contrast ratio of different features along the same vertical line as in Fig. 3, showing significant improvement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative MTF analysis between PC-VHIS and conventional VHIS. Experimental results of on-axis MTF along y direction (tangential direction) show that information in the DC component of PC-VHIS is degraded; however, high frequency information is enhanced significantly.

Equations (3)

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t knife ( f y ) = 1 2 [ 1 + sgn ( f y ) ] ,
exp [ j ϕ ( y ) ] 1 + j ϕ ( y ) ,
I i = | exp [ j ϕ ( y ) ] * FT [ t knife ( f y ) ] | 2 = | [ 1 + j ϕ ( y ) ] * FT { 1 + sgn ( f y ) 2 } | 2 = | [ 1 + j ϕ ( y ) ] * 1 2 [ δ ( y ) + 1 / j π y ] | 2 ϕ ( y ) * 1 π y ,

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