Abstract

A capability of high-frequency ultrasound detection to monitor the process of energy deposition into a molecular system via Raman excitation is experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that the generated ultrasound signal is directly proportional to the optical signal generated in stimulated Raman scattering. Ultrasound detection provides a simple way to discriminate against laser-induced breakdown and allows for the quantification of the stimulated Raman scattering process where direct optical detection is not available. Additionally, it can be used for stimulated Raman imaging in deep tissue, provided that the generated photoacoustic signal is sufficiently strong.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).
  2. R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. 130, 1850 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. V. Wang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Shashkov, E. L. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, Opt. Express 18, 6929 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 7169, 71690G (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

L. V. Wang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Cerny, H. Jelinkova, P. G. Zverev, and T. T. Basiev, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. Y. Nechaev and Y. N. Ponomarev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 752 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Y. R. Shen and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. 130, 1850 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

Arora, R.

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 7169, 71690G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T. T.

P. Cerny, H. Jelinkova, P. G. Zverev, and T. T. Basiev, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berner, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

Y. R. Shen and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cerny, P.

P. Cerny, H. Jelinkova, P. G. Zverev, and T. T. Basiev, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, M.

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denton, M. L.

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. L.

Gilch, P.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. 130, 1850 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Holton, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jelinkova, H.

P. Cerny, H. Jelinkova, P. G. Zverev, and T. T. Basiev, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kukura, P.

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laimgruber, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathies, R. A.

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCamant, D. W.

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nechaev, S. Y.

S. Y. Nechaev and Y. N. Ponomarev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 752 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. K.

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

Noojin, G. D.

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, G. I.

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 7169, 71690G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ploetz, E.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ponomarev, Y. N.

S. Y. Nechaev and Y. N. Ponomarev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 752 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rihman, S.

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shashkov, E. V.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tahara, T.

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taketsugu, T.

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, S.

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R. J.

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuneda, T.

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, E. J.

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. V.

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 7169, 71690G (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zharov, V. P.

Zinth, W.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zverev, P. G.

P. Cerny, H. Jelinkova, P. G. Zverev, and T. T. Basiev, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, Appl. Phys. B 87, 389 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. V. Wang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 171 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. V. Yakovlev, G. I. Petrov, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1970 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. Liu, J. Wang, G. I. Petrov, V. V. Yakovlev, and H. F. Zhang, Med. Phys. 37, 1518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. 130, 1850 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. 137, A1787 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

E. J. Woodbury and W. K. Ng, Proc. IRE 50, 2367 (1962).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

V. V. Yakovlev, H. F. Zhang, G. D. Noojin, M. L. Denton, R. J. Thomas, and M. O. Scully, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 7169, 71690G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Cerny, H. Jelinkova, P. G. Zverev, and T. T. Basiev, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4971 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. Takeuchi, S. Rihman, T. Tsuneda, M. Chiba, T. Taketsugu, and T. Tahara, Science 322, 1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holton, C. W. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Y. Nechaev and Y. N. Ponomarev, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 752 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic energy diagram of the stimulated Raman scattering process. (b) Schematic diagram of the experimental set up: L1, L2, lenses; P, polarizer; λ / 2 , half-wavelength plate; NF, Raman notch filter for 532 nm ; UT, ultrasound transducer; QC, quartz cell with an active medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spontaneous Raman spectrum of a mineral oil: dots, experimentally measured spectrum; red solid line, fit with five Lorentzian peaks, which are shown in blue dashed lines. (b) Experimentally measured energy of the generated Raman signal as a function of the incident energy (red circles). Dashed blue line is shown to provide a guide to the eye and indicates a threshold for the stimulated Raman scattering process at around 50 μJ .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimentally measured amplitude of the PA signal as a function of the output energy of a stimulated Raman amplifier. 1 mV corresponds to about 3 kPa pressure. Blue dashed line is shown to provide a guide to the eye. (b) Experimentally recorded PA wave fronts for low energy excitation (upper black curve) and for high energy excitation (lower red curve). The threshold incident energy was found to be around 0.3 mJ .

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