Abstract

In this work, suppression of the dark current level in a metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetector fabricated on the intrinsic (i) Ge is achieved by exploiting (1) the Er electrode, providing a relatively high hole barrier, and (2) the concept of asymmetric electrode area, to minimize the Schottky barrier height lowering effect. Compared with a symmetric MSM photodetector fabricated with Ti electrodes, the dark current level was reduced by a factor of about 80. This low dark current i-Ge MSM photodetector is promising for applications requiring low power and a high photo-to-dark-current ratio.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

L. Chen and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, L.

L. Chen and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 7901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

Chi, D.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, B. J.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chua, K. T.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

C. O. Chui and K. C. Saraswat, in Germanium-Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices, C.Claeys and E.Simeon, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2007), pp. 74–75.

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.

Dimoulas, A.

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evangelou, E. K.

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.

Han, D.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, R.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, A.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kita, K.

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lee, S.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, X.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mangeney, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

Melhaoui, L.

Nishi, Y.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

Pascal, D.

Rouviere, M.

Roux, X.

Sakata, S.

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

Saraswat, K. C.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Chui and K. C. Saraswat, in Germanium-Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices, C.Claeys and E.Simeon, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2007), pp. 74–75.

Sotiropoulos, A.

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

Tian, D.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toriumi, A.

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

Tsipas, P.

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wang, J.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, H.-S. P.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Dimoulas, P. Tsipas, A. Sotiropoulos, and E. K. Evangelou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 252110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Zang, S. J. Lee, W. Y. Loh, J. Wang, K. T. Chua, M. B. Yu, B. J. Cho, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H.-S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

D. Han, Y. Wang, D. Tian, W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Kang, and R. Han, Microelectron. Eng. 82, 93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Li, H. Yao, S. Lee, D. Chi, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, Thin Solid Films 504, 28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Takahashi, T. Nishimura, L. Chen, S. Sakata, K. Kita, and A. Toriumi, in IEEE IEDM Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), pp. 697–700.

C. O. Chui and K. C. Saraswat, in Germanium-Based Technologies: From Materials to Devices, C.Claeys and E.Simeon, eds. (Elsevier Science, 2007), pp. 74–75.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MS junction diode current (A) measurement of Ti/i-Ge and Er/i-Ge samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MSM schematic diagrams with (a) symmetric and (b) asymmetric electrode areas. (c) Energy band diagrams of the symmetric and asymmetric MSM samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark current (mA) measurements of (a) Er/i-Ge/Er and (b) Ti/i-Ge/Ti MSM photodetectors, each having symmetric and asymmetric electrode area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dark and photo ( 1 mW and 2 mW ) current (mA) measurement of the asymmetric MSM photodetectors with 1.3 μm IR light power: (a) Er/i-Ge/Er, (b) Ti/i-Ge/Ti.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized photo-to-dark-current ratio of the asymmetric Er/i-Ge/Er and Ti/i-Ge/Ti photodetectors.

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