Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) offers label-free, optical absorption contrast. A high-speed, high-resolution PAM system in an inverted microscope configuration with a laser pulse repetition rate of and a stationary ultrasonic transducer was built. Four-dimensional in vivo imaging of microcirculation in mouse skin was achieved at 18 three-dimensional volumes per second with repeated two-dimensional (2D) raster scans of 100 by 50 points. The corresponding 2D B-scan (50 A-lines) frame rate was , and the one-dimensional A-scan rate was . The lateral resolution is for Au nanowire imaging, which is 2.0 times below the diffraction limit.
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