Abstract

A highly sensitive optical waveguide sensor based on simple intensity interrogation with a broadband light source is proposed and investigated. It consists of two cascaded microring resonators with the same or slightly different free spectral ranges. The variation of the refractive index of the analyte sample results in a large shift in the envelope function of the transmission peaks of the sensor, and, consequently, a large change in the transmitted power. The low-cost sensing scheme can achieve an ultrahigh sensitivity of 2×104dB/RIU. Experimental results on the intensity interrogated double-ring sensor using a broadband source are presented, demonstrating its operation principle and potential for low-cost practical applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 7610 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, M.

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

Dai, D.

De Vos, K.

Delâge, A.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.-J.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JWA84.

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JWA84.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

Jokerst, N. M.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JWA84.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

Lopinski, G.

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Mitchell, A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Schmid, J. H.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Science

M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JWA84.

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed., D.R.Lide, ed., CD-ROM Version (CRC Press, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope image of the cascaded microring resonator sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral power distribution of a broadband source (dotted curve), and the transmission spectra of cascaded rings with slightly different FSRs when the envelope function has maximal (solid curve) and minimal (dashed curve) overlap with the source spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal to reference power ratio versus the sample refractive index change, with the FSR difference of the two rings as a parameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission spectra of the double-ring sensor when the sensing ring is exposed to aqueous solutions of NaCl with different concentrations of (a) 0%, (b) 4%, and (c) 8%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured power ratio between the signal port and the reference port versus refractive index change of aqueous solutions of NaCl at 20 ° C .

Equations (2)

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P s = 0 [ P i ( λ ) T r ( λ ) T s ( λ ) ] d λ .
Δ λ = Δ λ r Δ λ s | Δ λ s Δ λ r | ,

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