Abstract

The optical near-field technique is applied to provide a direct experimental observation of the refracted beam propagation inside a photonic crystal structure displaying a superprism effect. The obtained results show a 35° light beam angle deviation for a wavelength variation from 1500 to 1600nm. The experimentally determined beam divergence is in good agreement with modeling predictions and previously performed transmittance experiments. A marked self-collimation propagation over a broad 20nm wide spectral range centered at λ=1550nm is experimentally demonstrated. The developed technique opens promising perspectives for the invisibility cloaking structures investigation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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J. Marquès-Hueso, L. Sanchis, B. Cluzel, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Martinez-Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Valentine, J. Lil, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bernier, X. Le Roux, A. Lupu, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, Opt. Express 16, 17209 (2008).
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N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Akmansoy, E. Centeno, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, and J. M. Lourtioz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

T. Matsumoto, S. Fujita, and T. Baba, Opt. Express 13, 10768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L., E. Cassan, S. Laval, L. El Melhaoui, P. lyan, and J. M. Fédéli, Opt. Express 12, 5690 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Sondergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adibi, A.

Akmansoy, E.

E. Akmansoy, E. Centeno, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, and J. M. Lourtioz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.-P.

Askari, M.

Baba, T.

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Lil, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, D.

Bogaerts, W.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Sondergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Sondergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Sondergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Callard, S.

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, V.

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cassagne, D.

Cassan, E.

Centeno, E.

Charvolin, T.

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

Cluzel, B.

J. Marquès-Hueso, L. Sanchis, B. Cluzel, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Martinez-Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlem, M. S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

J. Marquès-Hueso, L. Sanchis, B. Cluzel, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Martinez-Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deroin, E.

Drisse, O.

Duan, G.-H.

Dumas, C.

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El Melhaoui, L.

Engelen, R. J. P.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eom, K.-S.

Fabre, N.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fujita, S.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, D.

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hadji, E.

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. J.

Ibanescu, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannnopoulos, J. D.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T.

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T. J.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolodzieski, L. A.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Sondergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 73903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.,

Lalouat, L.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Legouezigou, L.

Legouezigou, O.

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lil, J.

J. Valentine, J. Lil, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lourtioz, J. M.

E. Akmansoy, E. Centeno, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, and J. M. Lourtioz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 133501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lourtioz, J.-M.

Louvion, N.

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lupu, A.

Lupu, A.

Lustrac, A. D.

lyan, P.

Marquès-Hueso, J.

J. Marquès-Hueso, L. Sanchis, B. Cluzel, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Martinez-Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Martinez-Pastor, J. P.

J. Marquès-Hueso, L. Sanchis, B. Cluzel, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Martinez-Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

Mazilu, M.

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mélique, X.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Mélique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbésien, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohammadi, S.

Ourir, A.

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, G. S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Picard, E.

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, F. de Fornel, and E. Hadji, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 086109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cluzel, D. Gérard, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, V. Calvo, E. Hadji, and F. de Fornel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photon. 3, 461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, F.

Rakhshandehroo, M.

Rakich, P. T.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, L.

J. Marquès-Hueso, L. Sanchis, B. Cluzel, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Martinez-Pastor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, L. Salomon, C. Dumas, C. Seassal, N. Louvion, S. Callard, and F. de Fornel, Phys. Rev. B 78, 235304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljaci, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, M.

Sondergaard, T.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Sondergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljaci, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannnopoulos, L. A. Kolodzieski, and E. P. Ippen, Nature Mater. 5, 93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PhC related dispersive phenomena with k / / conservation lines are the dotted lines. (a) Superprism effect: strong variation of the group-velocity direction with the wavelength in the vicinity of a sharp equi-frequency curve corner. (b) Collimation effect due to the flat shape of the local EFS: all the group velocities of the transmitted Bloch waves of the k / / input beam distribution Δ k / / are in the same direction despite the incident beam divergence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM micrograph of the PhC superprism. (b) Schematic of the optical near-field experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Shear-force topography of the PhC superprism: the light path is depicted schematically by the arrows. The inset shows high resolution shear-force topography of the PhC. (b) to (d) Typical SNOM images of the superprism at different wavelengths: (b)  1570 nm , (c)  1550 nm , and (d)  1520 nm . The insets in (c) show the cross-sections of the refracted beam at the input and output of the PhC. Images of wavelengths from 1500 to 1600 nm are available (Media 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Refraction angles and (b) CFs of the refracted beam as a function of the wavelength. The data were measured on three different superprism samples. The open symbols in (a) are for three-dimensional plane wave expansion simulation results.

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