Abstract

We demonstrate a monolithically integrated micromechano-optical device where the resonance wavelength of a silicon ring resonator is tuned by perturbing the evanescent field with an electrostatically actuated silicon nitride microcantilever. The resonance wavelength can be tuned over 125pm.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, Z. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Lett. 35, 3246 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 31, 1241 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Express 14, 2969 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. C. L. Hopman, K. O. van der Werf, A. J. F. Hollink, W. Bogaerts, V. Subramaniam, and R. M. de Ridder, Opt. Express 14, 8745 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. OlympIOs Integrated Optics Software, C2V, P.O. Box 318, 7500 AH Enschede, The Netherlands (http://www.c2v.nl/products/software/support/support.shtml).
  7. Silicon photonics platform ePIXfab, Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC), Leuven, Belgium (http://www.epixfab.eu/).
  8. S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”
  9. D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Kluwer, 2001).

2010 (1)

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Abdulla, S. M. C.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Asghari, M.

Avrahami, Y.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Berenschot, E.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. C. L. Hopman, K. O. van der Werf, A. J. F. Hollink, W. Bogaerts, V. Subramaniam, and R. M. de Ridder, Opt. Express 14, 8745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, M. J.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

de Ridder, R. M.

W. C. L. Hopman, K. O. van der Werf, A. J. F. Hollink, W. Bogaerts, V. Subramaniam, and R. M. de Ridder, Opt. Express 14, 8745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Dijkstra, M.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Haus, H. A.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hollink, A. J. F.

Hopman, W. C. L.

Ippen, E. P.

Jansen, H. V.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Kauppinen, L. J.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Krijnen, G. J. M.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lopez-Royo, F.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Märki, I.

Nielson, G. N.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

Qian, W.

Rakich, P. T.

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 31, 1241 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M.

Seneviratne, D.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senturia, S.

S. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Kluwer, 2001).

Shafiiha, R.

Smith, H. I.

Subramaniam, V.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Werf, K. O.

van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 31, 1241 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

OlympIOs Integrated Optics Software, C2V, P.O. Box 318, 7500 AH Enschede, The Netherlands (http://www.c2v.nl/products/software/support/support.shtml).

Silicon photonics platform ePIXfab, Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC), Leuven, Belgium (http://www.epixfab.eu/).

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, H. V. Jansen, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, MESA+ Research Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.”

S. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Kluwer, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated effective refractive index as a function of the air gap between the cantilever and the waveguide. Inset, cross section used in the simulation. The refractive indices used in the simulation are 3.4 for Si, 2.0 for SiN, and 1.45 for SiO 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic cross section of the layer stack used to fabricate the integrated device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of the fabricated device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the setup used for electrostatic actuation of the cantilever and optical transmission measurements. Grating couplers, not shown in detail, couple light from a laser into the optical structure through a single-mode (SM) polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber, and from the structure to a photodetector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectra of a ring resonator measured for 0, 8.5, and 9.0 V actuation voltage. (b) Measured resonance wavelength shift as a function of actuation voltage.

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