Abstract

We demonstrate a method to count small numbers of atoms held in a deep, microscopic optical dipole trap by collecting fluorescence from atoms exposed to a standing wave of light that is blue detuned from resonance. While scattering photons, the atoms are cooled by a Sisyphus mechanism that results from the spatial variation in light intensity. The use of a small blue detuning limits the losses due to light-assisted collisions, thereby making the method suitable for counting several atoms in a microscopic volume.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1707 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Hoffmann, S. Bali, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1030(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hynecek and T. Nishiwaki, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1688 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. J. Wineland, J. Dalibard, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 32 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2010

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Hynecek and T. Nishiwaki, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

D. Hoffmann, S. Bali, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1030(1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, and T. Walker, Europhys. Lett. 27, 273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1986

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1688 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

Alt, W.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, M. F.

T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1688 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakr, W. S.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bali, S.

D. Hoffmann, S. Bali, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1030(1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, and T. Walker, Europhys. Lett. 27, 273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boiron, D.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Castin, Y.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cognet, L.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

Dalibard, J.

Dotsenko, I.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fölling, S.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Förster, L.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gill, A. T.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillen, J. I.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, M.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grünzweig, T.

T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heidmann, A.

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1688 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henage, T.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilliard, A.

T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D.

D. Hoffmann, S. Bali, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1030(1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, and T. Walker, Europhys. Lett. 27, 273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hynecek, J.

J. Hynecek and T. Nishiwaki, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Isenhower, L.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. A.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khudaverdyan, M.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGovern, M.

T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michaud, A.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miroshnychenko, Y.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishiwaki, T.

J. Hynecek and T. Nishiwaki, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, A.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollet, L.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Protsenko, I.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reick, S.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reymond, G.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffman, M.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomon, C.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1688 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlosser, N.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, J.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szymaniec, K.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tai, M. E.

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urban, E.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T.

D. Hoffmann, S. Bali, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1030(1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, and T. Walker, Europhys. Lett. 27, 273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. G.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weyers, S.

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

Zhang, X. L.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett.

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, and T. Walker, Europhys. Lett. 27, 273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

J. Hynecek and T. Nishiwaki, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Phys.

T. Grünzweig, A. Hilliard, M. McGovern, and M. F. Andersen, Nat. Phys. 6, 951 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, Nature 411, 1024 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

D. Hoffmann, S. Bali, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1030(1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Boiron, A. Michaud, P. Lemonde, Y. Castin, C. Salomon, S. Weyers, K. Szymaniec, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3734 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, T. A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Förster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, S. Reick, and A. Rauschenbeutel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, A. Heidmann, C. Salomon, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1688 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

W. S. Bakr, A. Peng, M. E. Tai, R. Ma, J. Simon, J. I. Gillen, S. Fölling, L. Pollet, and M. Greiner, Science 329, 547 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Calculated spatially dependent light shifts of the F = 2 to F = 3 D1 transition along the tight dimension of the trap. The blue double-headed arrow indicates the frequency of the standing-wave imaging light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Histogram of the integrated analog-to-digital units (adu) from a small number of atoms in the microtrap. The red curve is a fit of five Gaussians. (b) Result from a second image taken 20 ms after the first. (c) Average adu from successive images that were correlated to within ± 3000 adu .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spontaneous transitions between dressed states effect Sisyphus cooling. (b) Atoms that decay to the F = 3 ground state are pumped back into the cooling cycle by the D2 PGC beams (green straight arrow). (c) Survival probability for a single atom as a function of standing-wave power for δ = 1 MHz (crosses) and δ = 20 MHz (circles). (d) Integrated fluorescence collected for these two detunings. (e)  2.5 s exposure image of a single atom.

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