Abstract

A parallel wavefront optimization method is demonstrated experimentally to focus light through random scattering media. The simultaneous modulation of multiple phase elements, each at a unique frequency, enables a parallel determination of the optimal wavefront. Compared to a pixel-by-pixel measurement, the reported parallel method uses the target signal in a highly efficient way. With 441 phase elements, a high-quality focus was formed through a glass diffuser with a peak-to-background ratio of 270. The accuracy and repeatability of the system were tested through experiments.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123702 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Debarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 34, 2495 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photon. 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

P. Theer and W. Denk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

Bene, F. Del

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, Nat. Meth. 7, 141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

Botcherby, E. J.

Bridges, W. B.

Brown, W. P.

Brunner, P. T.

Burns, L. D.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cui, M.

M. Cui and C. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 3444 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123702 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debarre, D.

Denk, W.

P. Theer and W. Denk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derode, A.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photon. 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, K. K.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

Hansen, S.

Hebert, T. J.

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, E. T. W.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, C. L.

Huisken, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ja, Sanguine.

Ji, N.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, Nat. Meth. 7, 141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lazzara, S. P.

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDowell, E. J.

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123702 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, Nat. Meth. 7, 141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

Mukamel, E. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussmeier, T. A.

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omeara, T. R.

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J. E.

Pedinoff, M. E.

Psaltis, D.

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 18, 12283 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photon. 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.

Queener, H.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Roux, P.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stelzer, E. H. K.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swoger, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ta, N.

Theer, P.

Vellekoop, I. M.

Watanabe, T.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Wilt, B. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittbrodt, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

M. Cui and C. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 3444 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photon. 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123702 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photon. 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. W. Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. H. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123702 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Meth. (1)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, Nat. Meth. 7, 141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, Nat. Photon. 2, 110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Science 305, 1007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of the multidither COAT in free space. (b) Schematic drawing of the parallel wavefront optimization in random scattering media.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experiment setup: ND, neutral density filter; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; Expand, beam expander; M, mirror; SLM, phase-only spatial light modulator; L1, 0.5 NA , 20 × objective lens; L2, 0.9 NA 60 × objective lens; and CCD, CCD camera. (b) Schematic drawing of the operation of the parallel wavefront optimization method. Each phase element of the SLM was modulated at a different frequency. The detected target signal was Fourier transformed, and the phase values at the corresponding frequencies were displayed on the SLM to focus light onto the target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Observed random speckle with a flat phase profile displayed on the SLM. (b) Fourier transform determined phase pattern. (c) Observed focus profile with the measured phase pattern displayed on the SLM. The inset shows the magnified focus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Added random phase pattern. (b) Observed speckle with the added random phase pattern displayed on the SLM. (c) The added random phase pattern plus the measured phase pattern. (d) Observed focus profile with the added random phase pattern plus the measured phase pattern displayed on the SLM. (e) Flat phase used in (f). (f) Observed focus profile with a flat phase displayed on the SLM. Insets, magnified focus.

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