Abstract

A large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber-based sensing structure is described, which is sensitive to refractive index. The sensing head is based on multimodal interference, and relies on a single-mode/large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber (PCF)/single-mode fiber configuration. Using two distinct large-core air-clad PCF geometries—one for refractive index measurement and the other for temperature compensation, it was possible to implement a sensing head sensitive to refractive index changes in water as induced by temperature variations. The results indicated the high sensitivity of this sensing head to refractive index variations of water, and a resolution of 3.4×105 refractive index units could be achieved.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, Opt. Lett. 31, 317 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Mohammed, P. W. E. Smith, and X. Gu, Opt. Lett. 31, 2547 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, and H. M. Salgado, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, C. S. Antony, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, J. Phys. D 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, J. Phys. D 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Antony, C. S.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, C. S. Antony, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

Bang, O.

Bernini, U.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, J. Phys. D 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, W.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.-M.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caldas, P.

Carvalho, J. P.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, and H. M. Salgado, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dewynter-Marty, V.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

Farrell, G.

Ferdinand, P.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. Viegas, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and F. Farahi, Opt. Lett. 32, 3074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, and H. M. Salgado, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frignac, Y.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Issa, N. A.

Kirchhof, J.

J. Kobelke, S. Unger, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Recent developments of microstructured fibers for active and passive applications,” presented at International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Photonics 2008), Delhi, India, December 13–17, 2008.

Kobelke, J.

J. Kobelke, S. Unger, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Recent developments of microstructured fibers for active and passive applications,” presented at International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Photonics 2008), Delhi, India, December 13–17, 2008.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, C. S. Antony, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, W. S.

Pagnoux, D.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S.

J. Zhang and S. Peng, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (IEEE, 2010), paper 5504418.

Phan Huy, M. C.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ragozzino, E.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, J. Phys. D 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Roy, P.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salgado, H. M.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, and H. M. Salgado, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

Schuster, K.

J. Kobelke, S. Unger, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Recent developments of microstructured fibers for active and passive applications,” presented at International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Photonics 2008), Delhi, India, December 13–17, 2008.

Schwuchow, A.

J. Kobelke, S. Unger, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Recent developments of microstructured fibers for active and passive applications,” presented at International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Photonics 2008), Delhi, India, December 13–17, 2008.

Sharma, P.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, C. S. Antony, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

Somma, F.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, J. Phys. D 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

J. Kobelke, S. Unger, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Recent developments of microstructured fibers for active and passive applications,” presented at International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Photonics 2008), Delhi, India, December 13–17, 2008.

Varshney, R. K.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, C. S. Antony, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viegas, J.

Wang, Q.

Yan, W.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and S. Peng, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (IEEE, 2010), paper 5504418.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, J. Phys. D 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, and H. M. Salgado, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, C. S. Antony, and P. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 219, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

J. Zhang and S. Peng, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics (IEEE, 2010), paper 5504418.

J. Kobelke, S. Unger, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Recent developments of microstructured fibers for active and passive applications,” presented at International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (Photonics 2008), Delhi, India, December 13–17, 2008.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the air-clad PCF-based sensing structure and detail of each PCF implemented.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra of (a) air-clad PCF 1 , (b) air-clad PCF 2 and (c) air-clad PCF-based sensing structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature response in air of the two loss bands centered at λ 1 and λ 2 , for the air-clad PCF-based sensing structure. Inset, wavelength shift of the sensing head to temperature variations of the water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index response of the sensing head to temperature variations of water. Inset, variation of the wavelength resonance peak, λ 2 , induced by a step change of the temperature of the water.

Equations (1)

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[ Δ λ 1 Δ λ 2 ] = [ K T 1 K n 1 K T 2 K n 2 ] [ Δ T Δ n ] [ Δ T Δ n ] = [ K n 2 0 K T K T ] [ Δ λ 1 Δ λ 2 ] ,

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