Abstract

We demonstrate that diode laser self-mixing interferometry can be exploited to instantaneously measure the ablation front displacement and the laser ablation rate during ultrafast microdrilling of metals. The proof of concept was obtained using a 50-μm-thick stainless steel plate as the target, a 120ps/110kHz microchip fiber laser as the machining source, and an 823nm diode laser with an integrated photodiode as the probe. The time dependence of the hole penetration depth was measured with a 0.41µm resolution.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (5)

2009 (1)

S. Ottonelli, M. Dabbicco, F. De Lucia, M. diVietro, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 94, 19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, F. Röser, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 16, 8958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorman and M. Schulze, Laser Technik Journal 5, 44(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. Y. Chien and M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ancona, A.

A. Ancona, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 94, 19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, F. Röser, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 16, 8958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. D.

Bera, S.

Bony, F.

U. Zabit, F.  Bony, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, T.

U. Zabit, F.  Bony, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

C. Y. Chien and M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dabbicco, M.

F. De Lucia, M. Putignano, S. Ottonelli, M. diVietro, M. Dabbicco, and G. Scamarcio, Opt. Express 18, 10323(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ottonelli, M. Dabbicco, F. De Lucia, M. diVietro, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F.

F. De Lucia, M. Putignano, S. Ottonelli, M. diVietro, M. Dabbicco, and G. Scamarcio, Opt. Express 18, 10323(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ottonelli, M. Dabbicco, F. De Lucia, M. diVietro, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di Vietro, M.

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

diVietro, M.

Donati, S.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Döring, S.

Dorman, C.

C. Dorman and M. Schulze, Laser Technik Journal 5, 44(2008).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Fallnich, C.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, J. M.

Giuliani, G.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M. C.

C. Y. Chien and M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamlage, G.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leung, B. Y. C.

Limpert, J.

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mezzapesa, F. P.

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nodop, D.

A. Ancona, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 94, 19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Döring, S. Richter, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 18, 20395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ancona, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 94, 19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, F. Röser, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Opt. Express 16, 8958 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, M.E.Fermann, A.Galvanauskas, and G.Sucha, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 359–394..

Norgia, M.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ortaç, B.

Ostendorf, A.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ottonelli, S.

F. De Lucia, M. Putignano, S. Ottonelli, M. diVietro, M. Dabbicco, and G. Scamarcio, Opt. Express 18, 10323(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ottonelli, M. Dabbicco, F. De Lucia, M. diVietro, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. A.

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Putignano, M.

Rademaker, K.

Rakic, A. D.

U. Zabit, F.  Bony, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

Röser, F.

Sabbah, A. J.

Scamarcio, G.

F. De Lucia, M. Putignano, S. Ottonelli, M. diVietro, M. Dabbicco, and G. Scamarcio, Opt. Express 18, 10323(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ottonelli, M. Dabbicco, F. De Lucia, M. diVietro, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schimpf, D.

Schmidt, O.

Schulze, M.

C. Dorman and M. Schulze, Laser Technik Journal 5, 44(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

Squier, J. A.

Temnov, V. V.

Tsai, H. L.

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

von Alvensleben, F.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

Webster, P. J. L.

Wellegehausen, B.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yu, J. X. Z.

Zabit, U.

U. Zabit, F.  Bony, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

Appl. Phys. A (3)

C. Y. Chien and M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, D. Nodop, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 94, 19 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, Appl. Phys. A 68, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Ottonelli, F. De Lucia, M. Di Vietro, M. Dabbicco, G. Scamarcio, and F. P. Mezzapesa, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Zabit, F.  Bony, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Technik Journal (1)

C. Dorman and M. Schulze, Laser Technik Journal 5, 44(2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. H. Lin, R. A. Powell, L. Jiang, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 025307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 129, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors (1)

S. Ottonelli, M. Dabbicco, F. De Lucia, M. diVietro, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 3527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Nolte, in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, M.E.Fermann, A.Galvanauskas, and G.Sucha, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 359–394..

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the experimental setup. M, mirror; S, sample; L1, focusing lens; BS, dichroic beamsplitter; MS, mechanical shutter; VA, variable attenuator; L2, collimating lens; LD, laser diode; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscope photographs (objective 50 × ) of the entrance side (a) and the exit side (b) of a representative hole drilled on a 50-μm-thick stainless steel plate by laser percussion technique. A number of approximately 1200 laser pulses of 33.5 μJ energy and 120 ps time duration were used. (c) CCD image of the probe spot size recorded using a beam profile analyzer. (d) Schematic of the sample cross section and the beam waist of the probe laser. The theoretical Rayleigh length of the probe beam was about 210 μm and the measured beam diameter at the waist was 15.4 μm , comparable with its theoretical value ( 10.6 μm ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative oscilloscope traces showing the time dependence of the signals detected by (a) the external photodiode (PD1) and (b) the integrated photodiode (PD2) into the probe diode laser chip, during the laser percussion drilling of a 50-μm-thick stainless steel plate at a laser fluence 2.7 J / cm 2 . (c) Instantaneous value of the ablated layer thickness plotted as a function of the ablation time. (d)–(f) Representative portions of panel (b) plotted on an enlarged scale in order to show self-mixing interference fringes (d), (e), and the zero signal after breakthrough (f).

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